热带海洋学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (2): 17-25.doi: 10.11978/2017058

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大亚湾核电站邻近水域桡足幼体现场摄食研究

徐翠莲1,2(), 李涛1,3, 胡思敏1, 王有军1,2, 黄晖1,3, 刘胜1()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室; 广东省应用海洋生物学重点实验室, 广东 广州 510301
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院海南热带海洋生物实验站, 海南 三亚 572000
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-21 修回日期:2017-08-14 出版日期:2018-04-10 发布日期:2018-04-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:徐翠莲(1989—), 女, 湖北省广水市人,博士研究生,从事浮游动物摄食生态学研究。E-mail: xucuilian12b@mails.ucas.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0502805);广东省科技计划项目(2015A020216013);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA13020100);国家重点基础研究发展计划(“973”项目) (2015CB452904);国家自然科学基金项目(41276160);广东省应用海洋生物学重点实验室运行经费(2017B030314052)

In situ feeding of copepodites in the water near Daya Bay nuclear power plant

Cuilian XU1,2(), Tao LI1,3, Simin HU1, Youjun WANG1,2, Hui HUANG1,3, Sheng LIU1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Tropical Marine Biological Research Station in Hainan, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China
  • Received:2017-05-21 Revised:2017-08-14 Online:2018-04-10 Published:2018-04-11
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Project (2016YFC0502805);Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province, China (2015A020216013);Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA13020100);National Basic Research Program of China (“973” Program) (2015CB452904);National Natural Science Foundation of China (41276160);Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (2017B030314052)

摘要:

桡足类种类多、数量大、分布广, 在食物链中处于中间环节, 对海洋生态系统的结构稳定起着重要作用。桡足类幼体获取的营养直接影响其发育, 进而影响桡足类成体补充乃至种群的稳定。本研究于2015年夏季分别在大亚湾核电站邻近海域S1 (进水口水域)和S2 (排水口水域)站进行了调查采样, 应用分子生物学方法检测了桡足幼体现场摄食食物组成。结果显示: 1)两个站的桡足幼体内共检测到16种不同食物, 包括浮游植物(硅藻)11种, 后生动物2种、真菌、Ichthyosporea 和卵菌类各1种共5大类, 其中硅藻(47.30%, 克隆数百分比, 下同)和被囊动物类后生动物(41.89%)是其主要的食物类群; 2)在S1和S2站桡足幼体内分别检测到9种和10种食物, 但主要食物类型有差异, S1站较多后生动物(61.54%), 而S2站较多硅藻(68.57%); 3) S2站的桡足幼体杂食偏植食程度更高, 其杂食性系数(0.31)低于S1站(0.72)。结果表明, 桡足幼体能根据食物环境有选择地摄食植物饵料和动物饵料, 调节食物营养结构; 温排水影响水域桡足幼体更偏向植食性, 尤其是硅藻, 暗示全球变暖可能导致桡足幼体食性偏移。

关键词: 大亚湾, 桡足幼体, 摄食, 多样性, 升温

Abstract:

Copepods play important roles in maintaining the structure of marine ecosystem due to their key position in food chain and their numerous species, quantities and wide distribution. The nutrients obtained by copepod larvae can directly affect their development, then the complement of adult copepods and even their population stability. In this study, in situ feeding of copepodites was evaluated by molecular methods in the waters near the nuclear power plant in Daya Bay (S1: control station, S2: outfall station) in summer 2015. The results showed that 16 prey species in total were identified in both stations, including diatoms (11 species), tunicate (two species), fungi (one species), ichthyosporea (one species), and oomycetes (one species). Diatoms (47.30%) and tunicate (41.89%) were the most abundant food types revealed by the significant proportion of the clones. Similar feeding diversity was discovered in copepodites at S1 and S2, with nine prey species at S1 and 10 at S2, but significant differences in diet composition were revealed, with metazoan (61.54%) and diatoms (68.57%) dominating the diets of copepodites at S1 and S2, respectively. In addition, copepodites appeared to be more herbivorous at S2 with a lower Omnivory Index (0.31) than at S1 (0.72). These results suggested that copepodites could optimize their diet composition by consuming a reasonable percentage of animal and plant materials according to available food sources. More phytoplankton, especially diatoms as diet of copepodites at the outfall station implied that copepodites might change their feeding habits with global warming development.

Key words: Daya Bay, copepodites, feeding, diversity, increased temperature