热带海洋学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (5): 1-9.doi: 10.11978/2020127

• 海洋水文学 •    下一篇

河口挡潮闸对三角洲潮汐不对称时空变化的影响*

沈倩颖1,3,4(), 季小梅1,2, 张蔚1(), 徐龑文1   

  1. 1.河海大学, 江苏省海岸海洋资源开发与环境安全重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210098
    2.港口航道泥沙工程交通行业重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210029
    3.河海大学, 疏浚技术教育部工程研究中心, 江苏 南京 210098
    4.上海滩涂海岸工程技术研究中心, 上海 200061
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-02 修回日期:2021-01-12 出版日期:2021-09-10 发布日期:2021-01-19
  • 通讯作者: 张蔚
  • 作者简介:沈倩颖(1996—), 女, 江苏省盐城市人, 硕士研究生, 从事港口航道与海岸工程研究。email: 191303020011@hhu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    港口航道泥沙工程交通行业重点实验室开放基金(Yk220001-5);国家自然科学基金(42006155);国家自然科学基金(42006157);河海大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项(B210202026);河海大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项(B200204036);河海大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项(B200202053);水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室“一带一路”水与可持续发展科技基金(2020492111)

Impact of estuarine storm surge barriers on spatiotemporal variation of tidal asymmetry in a delta*

SHEN Qianying1,3,4(), JI Xiaomei1,2, ZHANG Wei1(), XU Yanwen1   

  1. 1. Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Coast Ocean Resources Development and Environment Security, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Port, Waterway & Sedimentation Engineering, Ministry of Communications, Nanjing 210029, China
    3. Engineering Research Center of the Education Ministry of dredging Technology, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
    4. Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Coastal Zones, Shanghai 200061, China
  • Received:2020-11-02 Revised:2021-01-12 Online:2021-09-10 Published:2021-01-19
  • Contact: ZHANG Wei
  • Supported by:
    Open foundation of Key Laboratory of Port, Waterway & Sedimentation Engineering(Yk220001-5);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42006155);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42006157);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(B210202026);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(B200204036);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(B200202053);Belt and Road Special Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering(2020492111)

摘要:

三角洲内部潮汐不对称性与三角洲地貌演变方向有重要关系。目前诸多研究关注海洋、陆地边界的改变对三角洲内的潮汐不对称性演变规律的影响。实际上, 大规模的河口工程也会对三角洲内的潮汐不对称性产生影响。在众多河口工程中, 河口挡潮闸由于直接削弱口门处海洋潮动力, 影响最为直接。荷兰三角洲是潮动力主导型三角洲, 受洪潮灾害影响较为严重, 为此在荷兰西南部修建了世界上著名的三角洲挡潮闸工程。文章以荷兰莱茵河-默兹河三角洲为研究对象, 分析以挡潮闸为主的河口工程对三角洲内河网潮汐不对称性演变特征的影响。选取莱茵河-默兹河三角洲13个潮位站点的50~60年的水文资料, 利用非平稳调和分析方法计算分析三角洲内部潮汐传播特性, 并进一步研究潮汐涨落潮历时不对称性演变特征, 揭示河口挡潮闸工程对潮汐河网中潮汐动力和潮汐不对称性的影响。研究表明, 莱茵河-默兹河三角洲为显著的涨潮占优型河口, 潮汐不对称现象总体向上游沿程增强。河口挡潮闸修建后受河网径流量和潮动力剧烈变化的影响, 封闭的南部通道内的潮波大幅度削弱, 潮汐不对称现象在下游增强在上游减弱。北部、中部通道其他站点则因为通道径流增大, 潮汐不对称现象增强, 中部站点变化更为显著。

关键词: 潮汐不对称, 挡潮闸坝, 河网, 非平稳调和分析, 三角洲

Abstract:

Tidal asymmetry in a delta has a vital relationship with the evolution direction of the delta geomorphology. Many studies focus on the evolution of tidal asymmetry in a delta in response to the changes of seaward and landward boundaries. Large-scale estuary projects also affect tidal asymmetry in a delta. Numerous estuary works show that storm surge barriers directly weaken the ocean tidal power on the inlet. The Rhine-Meuse Delta of the Netherlands is a tidal-driven delta, subject to flood disasters. The world-famous delta project was built in the southwest of the Netherlands. We take it as the research target, and analyze the influence of storm surge barriers on the evolution of tidal asymmetry in the delta networks. In this paper, we apply a nonstationary harmonic model to 50 ~ 60 years of hydrological data from 13 stations in the Rhine-Meuse Delta to analyze the characteristics of tidal propagation and tidal duration asymmetry and the influence of the storm surge barrier. Analytical results show that the Rhine-Meuse Delta is flood-dominant, and tidal duration asymmetry gradually increases upstream. Under the impact of suddenly changed river discharges and tidal dynamics after the construction of the storm surge barrier, the tidal powers in the enclosed southern branches were greatly weakened, and tidal asymmetry increased in the downstream and weakened in the upstream. In the other channels of the northern and central branches, the tidal asymmetry increased due to the increase of river discharges, more significantly in the central sites.

Key words: Tidal asymmetry, Storm surge barrier, Network, Nonstationary harmonic analysis, Delta

中图分类号: 

  • P731.2