热带海洋学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 135-146.doi: 10.11978/2021125

• 海洋生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

三亚蜈支洲岛海洋牧场近岛区底表大型底栖动物群落结构及评价

马文刚(), 夏景全, 魏一凡, 尹洪洋, 覃乐政, 刘相波, 胡雪晴, 许强(), 李秀保(), 王爱民   

  1. 海南大学海洋学院, 南海海洋资源利用国家重点实验室, 海南 海口 570228
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-15 修回日期:2021-11-23 发布日期:2021-11-29
  • 通讯作者: 许强,李秀保
  • 作者简介:马文刚(1997—), 男, 山东省济南市人, 硕士研究生, 从事群落生态学研究。email: 956497289@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2019YFD0901304);国家自然科学基金(42076097);海南省自然科学基金(2019RC070)

Community structure evaluation of epifaunal macrozoobenthos in the near-island waters of marine ranching in Wuzhizhou Island, Sanya

MA Wengang(), XIA Jingquan, WEI Yifan, YIN Hongyang, QIN Lezheng, LIU Xiangbo, HU Xueqing, XU Qiang(), LI Xiubao(), WANG Aimin   

  1. College of Marine Science, Hainan University, State Key Laboratory of Marine Resources Utilization in South China Sea, Haikou 570228, China
  • Received:2021-09-15 Revised:2021-11-23 Published:2021-11-29
  • Contact: XU Qiang,LI Xiubao
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2019YFD0901304);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42076097);Hainan Natural Science Foundation(2019RC070)

摘要:

三亚蜈支洲岛海洋牧场拥有丰富的岛礁生物资源。为掌握海洋牧场近岛区的底表大型底栖动物群落组成和分布特征及其影响因子、评估海洋牧场底栖生态系统健康状况, 本研究于2020—2021年进行了底表大型无脊椎动物群落季节变动的调查。结果表明: 近岛珊瑚礁区共鉴定出棘皮动物、软体动物、节肢动物3大门类90种, 其中秋季种类数最多为55种, 夏季种类数最少为16种; 底表大型底栖动物的年平均丰度为0.87±0.26ind.·m-2, 年平均生物量为76.99±34.32g·m-2。群落聚类分析(cluster)与多维排序尺度分析(multidimensional Scaling, MDS)表明, 该区域群落结构季节性差异不显著, 各站位间群落结构受沉积物性质以及人类活动的频繁程度的影响, 形成北部与南部区域2个聚类组。全年的物种丰富度指数d为2.7±1.16, 多样性指数H′为3.14±0.88, 均匀度指数J为0.76±0.11。基于多样性指数H'及多变量海洋生物指数(Multivariate-AZTI′s marine biotic index, M-AMBI)评价指标, 海洋牧场近岛区环境除夏季为轻度污染外, 其他季节均为无污染状态。采用动物丰度与生物量比较曲线(abundance-biomass curves, ABC曲线)法评价底栖动物群落稳定性状况得出, 除冬季以外, 其他季节底表大型底栖动物群落受到一定程度干扰, 尤其是夏季群落结构稳定性较低。建议应持续关注底表大型底栖动物群落变动, 调整、优化涉海休闲旅游活动, 以保证蜈支洲岛海洋牧场生态系统的长期健康与稳定。

关键词: 海洋牧场, 珊瑚礁, 底表大型底栖动物, 群落结构, 环境因子

Abstract:

Marine ranching in Wuzhizhou Island was rich in reef biological resources. The composition, distribution characteristics, and influencing factors of epifaunal macrozoobenthos community in the near-island area of marine ranching were studied; and the health status of marine ranching ecosystem was evaluated, based on samples obtained from the epibenthic macroinvertebrates community during 2020-2021. Ninety species of echinoderms, molluscs, and arthropods were identified in the near-island coral reef area, of which 55 species were the most in autumn and 16 species were the least in summer. The average annual abundance of epifaunal macrozoobenthos was 0.87±0.26 ind.·m-2, and the average annual biomass was 76.99±34.32 g·m-2. Community cluster analysis and Multi-dimensional scaling analysis showed that the seasonal difference of community structure in this area was not significant. The community structure among stations was affected by the nature of sediments and the frequency of human activities, forming two cluster groups in the north and south areas. The Margalef's richness index (d) was 2.7±1.16, Shannon-Wiener index (H') was 3.14±0.88, and Pielou's evenness index (J) was 0.76±0.11. Based on the diversity evaluation index and Multivariate-AZTI′s marine biotic index (M-AMBI), the environment of marine ranching near the island was not polluted in most seasons except for summer when it was lightly polluted. The stability of macrozoobenthos community was evaluated by abundance-biomass curves. We conclude that the epifaunal macrozoobenthos community was disturbed to a certain extent in all seasons except winter, especially in summer. We should continue to pay attention to the changes of epifaunal macrozoobenthos community and adjust recreational tourism activities so as to ensure the long-term health and stability of marine ranching ecosystem in Wuzhizhou Island.

Key words: marine ranching, coral reef, epifaunal macrozoobenthos, community structure, environmental factors

中图分类号: 

  • Q958