热带海洋学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 161-169.doi: 10.11978/2021143

• 海洋生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

海南澳洲管体星虫卵细胞发育及生殖周期研究

乔立君1,2(), 姚雪梅1,2(), 余巧驰1,2   

  1. 1.南海海洋资源利用国家重点实验室(海南大学), 海南 海口 570228
    2.海南大学海洋学院, 海南 海口 570228
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-25 修回日期:2021-12-28 出版日期:2022-09-10 发布日期:2021-12-31
  • 通讯作者: 姚雪梅
  • 作者简介:乔立君(1998—), 男, 山东省济宁市人, 在读硕士研究生, 从事海洋生物学方面研究。email: 17863927031@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    海南省自然科学基金(319MS013)

Development of oocytes and reproductive cycle of Siphonosoma australe in Hainan

QIAO Lijun1,2(), YAO Xuemei1,2(), YU Qiaochi1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    2. College of Ocean, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
  • Received:2021-10-25 Revised:2021-12-28 Online:2022-09-10 Published:2021-12-31
  • Contact: YAO Xuemei
  • Supported by:
    Hainan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China(319MS013)

摘要:

澳洲管体星虫(Siphonosoma australe)是海南当地极具特色的星虫资源, 经济价值高。近年来该资源急剧衰竭, 开展星虫资源恢复与保护十分重要。文章对海南澳洲管体星虫卵细胞的显微与超微结构进行研究。结果显示: 1) 卵细胞发育经历4个阶段: 生长前期, 体腔液中大量光滑的凹饼状红细胞出现表面凹凸不平的褶皱(直径小于30μm), 暗示这些红细胞是卵原细胞; 生长后期, 30~40μm的卵细胞表面褶皱消失, 变成光滑的圆厚饼状, 并出现厚度1μm的卵黄膜, 卵黄颗粒开始积累; 成熟前期, 卵细胞球状, 直径60~120μm, 卵黄膜增厚至5~11μm, 卵黄颗粒增多, 细胞核增大, 部分染色质形成高电子密度的团块散布于核内; 成熟后期, 直径120μm, 卵黄膜厚11~12μm, 卵黄颗粒充满整个卵细胞, 膜孔外露于膜表层。2) 成熟期澳洲管体星虫卵黄膜仅分为两层: 有一定厚度的均质内层和多层重叠膜结构组成的外层, 同时外层上覆盖有粒状突。膜孔结构简单, 主要是膜凹陷折叠形成。3) 卵黄颗粒分为Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型, 其发生途径主要由线粒体、内质网、高尔基体和溶酶体等细胞器演变而成, 亦可由卵母细胞吞饮而成。最为常见的是高尔基体包裹形成的Ⅱ型卵黄颗粒。4) 海南文昌海域澳洲管体星虫的繁殖季节为4—8月, 其中5—7月是繁殖高峰期。3月初卵母细胞开始出现, 4—8月成熟卵细胞在体腔中保持一定密度, 9月份卵细胞密度降至极低, 10月份后消失。澳洲管体星虫作为一种新的具有热带特色的水产种质资源, 其卵细胞发育及生殖周期研究将极大推动其繁育及保护的相关技术探索。

关键词: 澳洲管体星虫, 卵细胞发育, 生殖周期, 海南, 显微观察, 超微观察

Abstract:

Siphonosoma australe is an important sipuculan species and a typical local resource in Hainan with medicinal and edible value, it is distributed in tropical and subtropical coastal waters, mainly in surrounding waters of Hainan island. Due to overfishing and habitat destruction, the population size of S. australe rapidly declined in recent years. So the recovery and protection of the sipuculan resource is very important. The structures of oocytes of S. australe were observed by optical microscope and electron microscope. The results are shown as follows: 1) The oogenesis of S. australe could be divided into four stages: In the early growth stage, concave disk-shaped coelomocytes (less than 30 μm in diameter) changed from the smooth cells to lumpy and corrugated cells, which suggested that concave coelomocytes were the oogonia; in the late growth stage, the surface of 30 ~ 40 μm oocytes became smooth and unfolded, and the vitelline membrane of 1 μm in thickness appeared with the accumulation of yolk granules; in the early mature stage, oocytes were 60 ~ 120 μm in diameter and transformed into spherical shape. The yolk granules increased. The nucleus was enlarged. Some of the chromatin formed clumps with high electron density and dispersed in the nucleus; in the late mature stage, oocytes were 120 μm in diameter with the yolk granules filling the whole cells, and the membrane pores were exposed on the membrane surface. 2) The vitelline membrane of mature oocyte can be divided into two layers: the homogeneous inner layer with a thin thickness and the multi-folded outer layer with granular protuberances. The structure of membrane micropore was simple and formed by the invagination of the folded membranes. 3) During oogenesis, a variety of organelles increased and the yolk granules (type Ⅰ and Ⅱ) were combined with organelles, e.g. mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, evenly transformed by phagocytic vesicle. The type Ⅱ yolk-granules enveloped by Golgiosomes were common. 4) The reproductive season of S. australe in Wenchang, Hainan is from April to August and the reproductive peak is in May and July. Oocytes begin to appear in early March, quantitatively drop to a very low level in September and disappear in October. The mature oocytes keep a certain density in the coelom from April to August. It is speculated that the reproduction period is related to the monthly water-temperature and the season of highest water-temperature is the period of reproductive peak. As a new Hainan fishery resource with tropical characteristics, this research on oocyte development and reproductive cycle of S. australe is expected to greatly promote the development on related technologies for reproduction and protection.

Key words: Siphonosoma australe, Hainan, oogenesis, microstructural observation, ultrastructural observation, reproductive cycle

中图分类号: 

  • S917