热带海洋学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 5-15.doi: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2009.03.005

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南海名浅考

赵焕庭   

  1. 中国科学院边缘海地质重点实验室,广州510301;中国科学院南海海洋研究所,广州510301
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-11 修回日期:2009-01-12 出版日期:2009-05-31 发布日期:2010-02-05
  • 通讯作者: 赵焕庭

ZHAO Huan-Ting   

  • Received:2008-12-11 Revised:2009-01-12 Online:2009-05-31 Published:2010-02-05

摘要: 根据历史文献分析,已知南海海名最早出现于周宣王(827BC—782BC在位)时的《江汉》诗中。秦汉之间214BC—111BC时著的《山海经?海内东经》篇,记述了现时广东省三水和广州以南地区当时为海,称南海。这可从《史记》和《汉书》的记述,以及现代珠江三角洲的考古学、第四纪地质学和河口演变的研究成果所证实。南海古时别名涨海。明清时期外国人称为大明海和大清海。清朝以来,外国人把它翻译成(或称作)英文“South China Sea”,而近代某些中国人再把这个英文名词直译成汉文“南中国海”,忽视“南海”固有的中文名称。民国和中华人民共和国政府先后出版的地图和其他正式出版物,皆只用“南海”名。

关键词: 南海, 涨海, 大明海, 大清海, 南中国海

Abstract: The Chinese probably first had the name of the South China Sea (pronounced as “Nanhai” in Chinese, where “Nan” means “south”, “hai” means “sea”) in writing at the time of Wuwang Period (1046 BC-1043 BC) during the Zhou Dynasty. “Nanhai (place name)”, was named for its closeness to the South China Sea (Nanhai), which clearly suggests that the term “Nanhai (place name)” was used later than the term “Nanhai (sea name)”. During Chengwang Period (1042 BC-1021 BC) of the Zhou Dynasty, the famous tribute of black millet (Indian millet), known as the story of “Millet of Nanhai”, was from the “Nanhai (place name)”. In Xuanwang Period (827 BC -782 BC) of the Zhou Dynasty, the name “Nanhai” used in the poem Jiang Han includes both the “Nanhai (sea name)” and “Nanhai (place name)”, which was the first time the name was used in writing. “Nanhai” was then used in Yu Gong of Shang Shu in late Zhanguo Period (475 BC -221 BC), but whether it meant the “Nanhai (sea name)” or not has yet to be confirmed. “Nanhai” was later used in Hai Nei Dong Jing of Shan Hai Jing during the Qin (221 BC -207 BC) and Han (206 BC- AD 220) Dynasties; it was also used in Nan Yue Lie Zhuan of Shi Ji and in an ancient map of early Western Han Dynasty (206 BC- AD 8), where it was definitely referring to the “Nanhai (sea name)”, just like its present meaning. From the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 8-220) to the Tang (AD 618-907) and Song (AD 960-1279) Dynasties, the “Nanhai” was referred as the “Zhanghai”. Over the Ming (AD 1368-1644) and Qing (AD 1644-1911) Dynasties, the “Nanhai” was called the “Daminghai” and “Daqinghai” by foreigners. Then the “Nanhai” was translated as the “South China Sea” by foreigners and the name “South China Sea” has been widely used all over the world. Unfortunately, some Chinese translate the English name “South China Sea” directly into Chinese as the “Nanzhongguohai”, which is then used by some books, magazines and media. The “Nanhai” was first found and named by Chinese around 3 000 years ago, which has been well recognized all over the world. The “Nanhai” is the only name used in official publications and maps by the most recent governments of China. The “Nanhai” is also the only name used in the related administrative departments, armed forces and institutions. Therefore, the “Nanhai” should not be called the “Nanzhongguohai”. People using the name “Nanzhongguohai” can be considered ignorant to Chinese history, which may mislead people to think that the “Nanhai” (South China Sea) was first found and named by foreigners, and further confuse the Chinese sovereignty on the Nanhai.

Key words: Nanhai Sea(South China Sea), Zhanghai Sea(Rising Sea), Daimignhai Sea(Great Ming Hai), Daiqing Sea(Great Qing Sea);Nanzhongguohai(South China Sea)

中图分类号: 

  • P722.7