热带海洋学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 1-7.doi: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.01.001

• 综述 •    下一篇

珠江口海域环境污染研究进展

黄小平1, 田磊1,2, 彭勃1,2, 张大文1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南海海洋研究所热带海洋环境动力学重点实验室, 广东 广州510301; 2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-12-02 修回日期:2009-12-23 出版日期:2010-01-15 发布日期:2001-01-08
  • 作者简介:黄小平(1965—), 男, 湖南省邵阳市人, 博士, 研究员, 主要从事海洋环境与生态研究。
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向性项目(KZCX2-YW-Q07); 国家自然科学基金项目(40776086); 中国科学院南海海洋研究所
    知识创新工程领域前沿项目(LYQY200706)

Environmental pollution in the Pearl River Estuary: a review

HUANG Xiao-ping1, TIAN Lei1, 2, PENG Bo1, 2, ZHANG Da-wen1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS, Guangzhou 510301, China; 2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2009-12-02 Revised:2009-12-23 Online:2010-01-15 Published:2001-01-08

摘要:

由于人类活动影响, 珠江口海域环境已受到较严重污染, 对该海域环境污染规律的研究也日益受到关注。本文对珠江口海域富营养化特征和持久性毒害污染物为主的污染规律研究进展进行了综述。结果表明, 过量的氮磷输入已导致水体高度富营养化, 富营养化是诱发该海域赤潮发生的重要因素, 水体层化和富营养化耦合导致局部海域出现底层季节性缺氧, 持久性毒害污染物主要在沉积物和生物体中富集, 柱状沉积物的记录反映出沉积物中污染物积累与近30年来珠江三角洲经济快速发展密切相关。最后指出, 当前和今后该海域环境污染急需加强研究的重要方向主要包括: 持久性毒害污染物在生物体组织中的传递过程和在食物链中累积规律、富营养化条件下的复合污染效应、污染物的微生物降解机制、污染控制策略等。

关键词: 珠江口海域, 富营养化, 重金属, 持久性有机污染物

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is serious in the Pearl River Estuary due to human activities and an increasing attention has been paid to the pollution in this region. This paper mainly reviews the eutrophication characteristics and the pollution patterns of persistent toxic substances (PTS, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants—POPs) in the water. Results in-dicate that the excessive input of nitrogen and phosphate has led to the high eutrophication in the water. Eutrophication plays an important role in triggering red tides. The coupling effect of the water stratification and eutrophication leads to the seasonal hypoxia in certain areas of the estuary. PTS mainly accumulate in sediment and organisms. The records of pollutants in sedi-ment cores reflect that pollutant accumulation in sediments is closely related to the rapid economical development of the Pearl River Delta in the past three decades. Finally, the critical issues of research are put forward on the environmental pollution of this area in the future, which include biotransformation of pollutants in tissues and bioaccumlation in food chain, the combined pollution of various pollutants in eutrophic water, mechanisms of microbial biodegradation of pollutants, pollution control strategy, among others.

Key words: The Pearl River Estuary, Eutrophication, Heavy metals, POPs