热带海洋学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 8-14.doi: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.01.008

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珠江口红树林基围养殖生态开发模式评述

张乔民, 施祺, 余克服   

  1. 中国科学院边缘海地质重点实验室, 中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 广东 广州 510301
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-25 修回日期:2009-02-01 出版日期:2010-01-15 发布日期:2001-01-08
  • 作者简介:张乔民(1942—), 男, 江苏省姜堰市人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 从事海岸河口动力地貌和热带海岸生物地貌研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家海洋局海洋公益性行业科研专项(200705026); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(kzcx2-yw-318); 国家自然科学
    基金项目(40830852和40406018);“973”课题(2007CB815905)。

Review of eco-development model for mangrove land-based enclosure aquaculture in the Pearl River Estuary

ZHANG Qiao-min, SHI Qi, YU Ke-fu   

  1. CAS Key Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS, Guangzhou 510301, China
  • Received:2008-12-25 Revised:2009-02-01 Online:2010-01-15 Published:2001-01-08

摘要:

起源于珠江三角洲的红树林基围(land-based enclosure)养殖传统模式是红树林可持续利用和生态开发范例之一。本文介绍了珠江口红树林基围养殖生态开发模式的3个个例: 仅存香港米埔红树林自然保护区的传统基围养殖运作历史和演变, 及其候鸟生境、养殖、观鸟、环境教育综合功能的实现; 珠海淇澳岛大围湾红树林传统和粗放式基围养殖试验和围内水位盐度等环境条件变化对红树林生长影响的研究; 伶仃洋东岸海上田园红树林海水种植−集约式养殖系统试验和红树林净化水质研究。在珠江口红树林保护管理及海域污染防治过程中建议重视红树林可持续利用模式的研究和推广, 建立新的基围养殖示范区, 大力推广红树林基围养殖的生态开发模式, 探索毁林养殖区红树林友好式整治模式, 改善红树林基围养殖技术提高养殖产量, 加强红树林基围养殖系统相关科学研究。

关键词: 红树林, 生态开发, 基围养殖, 红树林种植−养殖系统, 珠江口

Abstract:

The traditional mangrove land-based enclosure aquaculture model originated in the Pearl River Delta is a good example showing how mangroves can be used sustainably. This paper introduces three examples of mangrove land-based enclosure aquaculture at the mouth of the Pearl River Estuary. The first example is about the only operating traditional mangrove land-based enclosure for shrimp farming located in Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve of Hong Kong and managed by WWF Hong Kong; its history goes back to the mid-1940s and its focus for management strategy has evolved from being commercial culture ponds to performance of multi-ecological functions including feeding habitat for piscivorous water birds, bird-watching, environmental education, as well as shrimp farming. The second example is the mangrove land-based enclosure for traditionally extensive aquaculture trial in the Dawei Bay on the Qi’ao Island of Zhuhai City, regarding measurement and analyses of relationship between the environmental condition change of water level and salinity and the mangrove community dynamics inside land-based enclosure. The third example is the mangrove planting-aquaculture system trial in the Shenzhen Waterlands Resort on the east coast of the Lingdingyang Estuary, including research on water purification function by mangroves. For mangrove protection and management and for marine pollution prevention in the Pearl River Estuary waters, the following suggestions are given: 1) Preventing resolutely the development model of clearing mangrove for aquaculture ponds, and disseminating and applying the eco-development model of land-based enclosure aquaculture or mangrove-friendly aquaculture; 2) Building new land-based enclosure aquaculture demonstration site in major mangrove regions, and exploring mangrove-friendly restoration model in aquaculture pond areas built by clearing mangroves; 3) strengthening relevant scientific research for maximizing comprehensive efficiency of mangrove land-based enclosure aquaculture.

Key words: mangrove, eco-development, land-based enclosure aquaculture, mangrove planting aquaculture system, Pearl River Estuary