热带海洋学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (5): 111-118.doi: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.05.111

• 海洋生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

盐度和营养对凡纳滨对虾生长、耗氧率及排氨率的影响

申玉春, 陈作洲, 吴灶和, 黄翔鹄   

  1. 南海水产经济动物增养殖广东普通高校重点实验室, 广东海洋大学水产学院, 广东 湛江 524025
  • 收稿日期:2008-11-03 修回日期:2009-01-30 出版日期:2010-10-30 发布日期:2011-10-10
  • 通讯作者: 吴灶和, 教授, 博士
  • 作者简介:申玉春(1964—), 男, 内蒙古赤峰市人, 教授, 博士, 主要从事水域生态与健康养殖的研究。
  • 基金资助:

    广东省科技计划项目(2008B020800009、2007A032600004); 科技部农业科技成果资金转化项目(2006GB2E000224); 广东省重
    大科技兴海项目(B200608A03)

Effects of salinity and nutrition on growth, respiration and excretion of Litopenaeus vannamei

SHEN Yu-chun, CHEN Zuo-zhou, WU Zao-he, HUANG Xiang-hu   

  1. Key Laboratory of Aquaculture in South China Sea for Aquatic Economic Animal, Regular High Education Institution of Guangdong Province; Fisheries College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, 524088
  • Received:2008-11-03 Revised:2009-01-30 Online:2010-10-30 Published:2011-10-10
  • Contact: 吴灶和, 教授, 博士
  • About author:申玉春(1964—), 男, 内蒙古赤峰市人, 教授, 博士, 主要从事水域生态与健康养殖的研究。
  • Supported by:

    广东省科技计划项目(2008B020800009、2007A032600004); 科技部农业科技成果资金转化项目(2006GB2E000224); 广东省重
    大科技兴海项目(B200608A03)

摘要:

研究了盐度和饲料蛋白水平与凡纳滨对虾Litopenaeus vannamei生长、耗氧率、排氨率的关系, 并分析了实验对虾肌肉成分。结果表明, 随着饲料蛋白水平的提高, 凡纳滨对虾的生长速率逐渐提高, 但饲料蛋白水平对其存活率影响不显著(P>0.05)。在不同饲料蛋白水平下, 实验对虾的存活率随着盐度的增加而增加, 差异不显著(P>0.05)。实验对虾的生长速率在低盐度水平下随着盐度的增加而增加, 在盐度18‰时达到最快的生长速率, 而后生长速率随着盐度的增加而降低。随着盐度的提高, 实验对虾肌肉中粗蛋白质、粗脂肪和灰分含量显著提高(P<0.05); 而肌肉含水率、无氮浸出物的含量则显著下降(P<0.05)。随着饲料蛋白水平的提高, 实验对虾肌肉中粗蛋白质和灰分含量显著提高(P<0.05); 肌肉含水率、无氮浸出物的含量则显著下降(P<0.05), 而粗脂肪含量差异不显著(P>0.05)。盐度和饲料蛋白水平对凡纳滨对虾的耗氧率、排氨率有显著的影响(P<0.05)。随着盐度和饲料蛋白水平的提高, 对虾的耗氧率显著下降(P<0.05), 耗氧率高峰值出现在摄食后2—3 h。排氨率随着饲料蛋白水平的提高逐渐升高, 随盐度的升高逐渐降低, 排氨率高峰值出现在摄食后2 h。盐度与饲料蛋白水平对凡纳滨对虾氧氮比影响显著(P<0.05)。

关键词: 盐度, 营养, 生长, 耗氧率, 排氨率, 凡纳滨对虾Litopenaeus vannamei

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of salinity and dietary protein levels on growth, respiration and excretion of Litopenaeus vannamei. The composition of body muscle was analyzed. The results showed that the growth rate was increased with the increase of dietary protein level, but the survival rate was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The survival rate was not significantly increased with the increase of salinity in the different dietary protein levels (P>0.05). The growth rate was increased with the increase of salinity in a low salinity levels, the highest growth rate was obtained at 18, then it was decreased with further increase of salinity. The analysis of body composition showed that the crude protein, crude fat and ash content significantly increased with the increase of salinity (P<0.05), but moisture and nitrogen-free extract content decreased significantly (P<0.05). Crude protein and ash content significantly increased with the increase of dietary protein level (P<0.05), but moisture and nitrogen-free extract content decreased significantly (P<0.05), crude fat was not significantly affected (P>0.05).The oxygen consumption rate and the ammonia excretion rate were affected significantly by the different salinity and dietary protein levels (P<0.05). The oxygen consumption rate was significantly decreased with the increase of salinity and dietary protein level (P<0.05), appearance time of the high peak was 2−3 h after ingestion. The ammonia excretion rate increased with the increase of dietary protein level, but decreased with the increase of salinity, appearance time of the high peak was 2 h after ingestion. The oxygen-nitrogen ratio was affected significantly by the different salinity and the dietary pro-tein levels (P<0.05).

Key words: salinity, nutrition, growth, oxygen consumption rate, ammonia excretion rate, Litopenaeus vannamei