热带海洋学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 86-97.doi: 10.11978/2019001

• 海洋生物学 • 上一篇    

防城河口湾鱼类群落结构及其与环境因子关系研究

何思璇1,何斌源2()   

  1. 1.中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京100081
    2.广西壮族自治区海洋研究院, 南宁 广西 530022
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-01 修回日期:2019-04-28 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 何斌源
  • 作者简介:何思璇(1997—), 女, 广西省东兴市人。主要从事生态学研究。E-mail: hesixuan2018@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划重点专项(2017YFC0506100);国家海洋局专项(YLFCJ20164006-F);广西海洋局研究专项(GXHYJ100);广西科技计划项目(AA17129002)

Study on fish community structure and its relationship with environmental factors in Fangchenghe Estuary of Guangxi, China

Sixuan HE1,Binyuan HE2()   

  1. 1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China
    2. Guangxi Academy of Oceanography, Nanning 530022, China
  • Received:2019-01-01 Revised:2019-04-28 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-10-09
  • Contact: Binyuan HE
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFC0506100);Science and Technology Project of State Oceanic Administration(YLFCJ20164006-F);Science and Technology Project of Guangxi Oceanic Administration(GXHYJ100);Guangxi Science and Technology Project(AA17129002)

摘要:

文章根据2016年5月、8月、11月和2017年2月在防城河口湾海域进行的渔业资源和环境调查数据, 研究了河口湾鱼类群落结构及其空间和季节变化, 分析了鱼类群落结构与主要环境因子的关系。结果表明: 全年调查共渔获鱼类95种, 隶属于2纲12目37科69属, 适温性以暖水性鱼类为主, 生态类型以底层和近底层鱼类为主。其中, 春季60种, 夏季59种, 秋季54种, 冬季46种, 夏—秋季间种类相似性指数最高。全年优势种为褐菖鲉Sebastiscus marmoratus和长鳍篮子鱼Siganus canaliculatus, 主要种有黄鳍棘鲷Acanthopagrus latus、条马鲾Equulites rivulatus、李氏?Callionymus richardsoni和真赤鲷Pagrus major等10种; 夏、秋季的最大优势种均为长鳍篮子鱼, 春、冬季的最大优势种分别为褐菖鲉和条马鲾。全湾鱼类年均资源密度为45836尾·km -2和 435.21kg·km -2, 资源密度具有明显的空间差异和季节变化。全年各站位种数变化范围在2~21种, 多样性指数H′在0.468~4.031, 丰富度指数d在0.120~1.926, 均匀度指数J在0.181~0.969。聚类分析、单因子相似性分析(ANOSIM)及相似性百分比(SIMPER) 分析表明该海域鱼类群落存在一定程度的时空异质性。相关性分析表明影响防城河口湾鱼类群落结构的主要环境因子为水温、盐度和硝酸盐。

关键词: 鱼类, 种类组成, 群落结构, 环境因子, 防城河口湾

Abstract:

Based on the survey in May, August and November 2016 and February 2017, the spatial and seasonal dynamics of the fish community structure and its relationship with the environmental factors in Fangchenghe Estuary of Guangxi, China were studied. A total of 95 species of fishes were collected in four seasons, belonging to two classes, 12 orders, 37 families, and 69 genera. Among them, 72 species were warm water fishes and 23 species were warm temperate fishes, accounting for 75.8% and 24.2% of the total, respectively. As for their ecological types, the bottom and near-bottom fishes were the dominant species, which accounted for 86.3% of the total species. In all, 60 species in spring, 59 species in summer, 54 species in autumn, and 46 species in winter were recorded. The similarity index between summer and autumn was the highest among season pairs. According to the index of relative importance (IRI), the whole-year dominant species were Sebastiscus marmoratus and Siganus canaliculatus, whose IRI values were higher than 500; 10 main species included Acanthopagrus latus, Equulites rivulatus, Callionymus richardsoni, Pagrus major, and so on, whose IRI values ranged from 100 to 500. Siganus canaliculatus acted as the biggest dominant species in both summer and autumn, so did Sebastiscus marmoratus in spring and Equulites rivulatus in winter. The annual average resource density and biomass of the study area were 45836 individual·km -2and 435.21 kg·km -2, respectively. The resource abundance varied significantly among pairs of seasons or regions. The scale of species abundance per sample ranged from 2 to 21 species; the species diversity index H′, from 0.468 to 4.031; the richness index d, from 0.120 to 1.926; and the evenness index J, from 0.181 to 0.969. Cluster analysis, analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and similarity of percentage (SIMPER) showed that there existed some spatial-temporal heterogeneity in the fish community structure. Correlation analysis showed that the water temperature, salinity and nitrate content were the major environmental factors affecting the fish community structure.

Key words: fish, species composition, community structure, environmental factor, Fangchenghe Estuary

中图分类号: 

  • P735.542