热带海洋学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 84-97.doi: 10.11978/2020070

• 海洋生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

南海典型珊瑚礁生态系统健康评价方法研究

吴莹莹1,2(), 雷新明1, 黄晖1, 张浴阳1, 丁德文1,2,3()   

  1. 1.中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 广东 广州 510301
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3.自然资源部第一海洋研究所, 山东 青岛 266061
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-07 修回日期:2020-09-09 出版日期:2021-07-10 发布日期:2020-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 丁德文
  • 作者简介:吴莹莹(1982—), 女, 江西省南昌市人, 博士研究生, 主要从事海洋生态学研究。email: wuyingying@itpcas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41306144);国家自然科学基金项目(41676150);国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0506301);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA13020402);广东省基础与应用基础研究基金项目(2019A1515011532)

Study on the health assessment method of typical coral reef ecosystem in the South China Sea

WU Yingying1,2(), LEI Xinming1, HUANG Hui1, ZHANG Yuyang1, DING Dewen1,2,3()   

  1. 1. South China Sea Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China
  • Received:2020-07-07 Revised:2020-09-09 Online:2021-07-10 Published:2020-09-20
  • Contact: DING Dewen
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41306144);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41676150);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFC0506301);Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA13020402);Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation(2019A1515011532)

摘要:

本研究基于系统复杂性原理, 提出了南海典型珊瑚礁生态系统健康评价方法——组织力及系统功能评价法。该方法的评价框架包括珊瑚礁生态系统结构及功能、珊瑚礁生态系统与其他海洋生态系统间关系、与人类社会生态系统间关系、珊瑚礁生态系统发展制约因素等四大模块; 评价指标体系分为目标层、准则层、因素层、要素层等6个层级共计67个指标。同时, 本研究系统地提出了珊瑚礁生态系统健康评价的流程, 提高了珊瑚礁健康评价工作的规范性和时效性。应用组织力及系统功能评价法对2011—2018年西沙群岛珊瑚礁生态系统进行了健康评价, 结果显示自2011年起健康指数年均下降2.3%~2.4%, 除2012年、2015年健康指数稍有回升外, 其余年份均呈下降走势, 整体评价为亚健康状态。根据七连屿周边岛屿的实地考察和居民生活问卷调查结果, 2006—2008年的渔业发展、2012年的海星泛滥和2014—2015年的岛礁建设均对珊瑚礁生态系统造成了较大影响, 使10年内渔业产量下降了50%~80%。这与应用组织力及系统功能评价法的评价结果相吻合, 侧面验证了该评价方法的科学性和可行性。

关键词: 南海, 珊瑚礁, 生态系统, 健康评价

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the principle of ecosystem complexity, and propose a method for evaluating the health of typical coral reef ecosystems in the South China Sea-"Organization and System Function Evaluation." The evaluation framework of this method includes four modules: the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems, the relationship between coral reef ecosystems and other marine ecosystems, the relationship with human social ecosystems, and the development constraints of coral reef ecosystems. The evaluation index system is divided into six levels, including target level, criterion level, factor level, and element level, totaling 67 indicators. We systematically put forward the process of coral reef ecosystem health evaluation, which improves the standardization and timeliness of coral reef health evaluation. The organizing power and system function evaluation method was used to evaluate the health of the coral reef ecosystem of the Paracel Islands from 2011 to 2018. The results show that the health index has fallen by 2.3%-2.4% annually since 2011. Except for a slight rebound in 2012 and 2015, the health index has shown a downward trend in the rest of the years. The overall evaluation is that the coral reef ecosystem of the Paracel Islands is sub-healthy. This result is consistent with the results of field investigations and questionnaire surveys on residents' lives around the Qilianyu Islands. We find that the development of fisheries in 2006-2008, the flooding of starfish in 2012, and the construction of islands and reefs in 2014-2015 had great impacts on the coral reef ecosystem. The fishery output dropped by 50%-80% in 10 years, which is also consistent with the evaluation results. It verifies the science and feasibility of the evaluation method from another angle.

Key words: South China Sea, coral reef, ecosystem, health assessment

中图分类号: 

  • P735.12