热带海洋学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (5): 123-133.doi: 10.11978/2020137

• 海洋环境保护 • 上一篇    下一篇

西沙海域甘泉岛和全富岛海滩上的塑料垃圾与微塑料分布特征

方周1,4(), 谭飞1,4, 杨红强1,3,5(), 徐辉龙1, 徐向荣2,3, 李恒翔2,3()   

  1. 1.中国科学院边缘海与大洋地质重点实验室, 中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 中国科学院南海生态环境工程创新研究院, 广东 广州 510301
    2.中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室, 中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 中国科学院南海生态环境工程创新研究院, 广东 广州 510301
    3.南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州), 广东 广州 511458
    4.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    5.中国科学院南沙海洋生态环境实验站, 海南 三沙 573199
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-20 修回日期:2021-03-02 出版日期:2021-09-10 发布日期:2021-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 杨红强,李恒翔
  • 作者简介:方周(1996—), 男, 河北省邢台市人, 主要从事南海环境地质研究。email: 13763057862@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中科院先导专项(XDA13010103);中科院先导专项(XDA13020101);南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0404);南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0206);中国科学院南海生态环境工程创新研究院自主部署项目(ISEE2019ZR03);中国科学院南海生态环境工程创新研究院自主部署项目(ISEE2018PY01)

Distribution characteristics of plastic debris and microplastics on the beaches of Ganquan Island and Quanfu Island in Xisha Sea

FANG Zhou1,4(), TAN Fei1,4, YANG Hongqiang1,3,5(), XU Huilong1, XU Xiangrong2,3, LI Hengxiang2,3()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
    3. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    5. Nansha Marine Ecological and Environmental Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sansha 573199, China
  • Received:2020-11-20 Revised:2021-03-02 Online:2021-09-10 Published:2021-03-10
  • Contact: YANG Hongqiang,LI Hengxiang
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA13010103);Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA13020101);Key Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering, Guangdong Laboratory(Guangzhou)(GML2019ZD0404);Key Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering, Guangdong Laboratory(Guangzhou)(GML2019ZD0206);Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences(ISEE2019ZR03);Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences(ISEE2018PY01)

摘要:

塑料污染现象在世界各地海滩随处可见, 日益成为海洋环境中的重要威胁。文章调查了西沙海域甘泉岛和全富岛海滩的塑料污染分布情况, 结果显示, 尽管研究区域远离大陆, 人类活动影响较小, 但是海岛海滩上的塑料污染普遍存在, 塑料垃圾(>5mm)的平均分布丰度为(85.07±70.48)个∙m-2, 平均重量为(40.23±78.15)g∙m-2; 微塑料(<5mm)的平均分布丰度为(1774.75±1534.37)个∙m-2或(100.82±87.18)个∙kg-1。塑料垃圾和微塑料在不同海岛间的丰度分布均无显著性的差异, 但无论是塑料垃圾的丰度还是微塑料的丰度, 在环礁内侧海滩都显著高于环礁外侧海滩。此外, 微塑料的丰度分布与塑料垃圾的丰度分布呈显著的线性相关。红外光谱分析得出塑料聚合物主要成分有聚苯乙烯、聚丙烯和聚乙烯等, 其中以聚苯乙烯泡沫的比例占优。甘泉岛和全富岛海滩的塑料污染主要是通过其他地区的外源性塑料输送而来, 其在海岛上的不均匀空间分布受到区域海流作用、水动力条件、塑料降解等多种因素的影响。

关键词: 微塑料, 塑料垃圾, 海岛, 污染, 分布

Abstract:

Plastic pollution is ubiquitous on beaches throughout the world, which has become a threat to marine environment. However, plastic pollution in remote arears has been rarely reported. This study investigates the pollution and distribution of plastic waste on Ganquan Island and Quanfu Island in the Xisha Sea. Results show that plastic debris and microplastics were widespread over these island beaches, although these islands are far from the lands and direct impacts of human activities. The average abundance and weight of plastic debris were (85.07±70.48) item∙m-2and (40.23±78.15) g∙m-2, respectively, whereas the average abundance of microplastics was (1774.75±1534.37) item∙m-2or (100.82±87.18) item∙kg-1. The abundance of plastic debris or microplastics was not statistically different between Ganquan Island and Quanfu Island, but plastic debris and microplastics along the inner atoll were more than those around the outer atoll of the islands. There was a significant linear correlation in the abundances of microplastics and plastic debris. Infrared spectroscopy analysis shows that the main polymer components including polystyrene, polypropylene, polyethylene, etc., especially polystyrene foam that had a higher number in the samples. Plastic debris and microplastics in the uninhabited islands of Xisha might have been transported from other areas, and their spatial distributions around the islands had been affected by multiple forces, such as ocean currents, hydrodynamic condition and plastic fragments.

Key words: microplastic, plastic debris, island, pollution, distribution

中图分类号: 

  • P762.9