热带海洋学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 83-92.doi: 10.11978/2014129

• 海洋地貌学 • 上一篇    下一篇

柘林湾多口门潮汐汊道动力地貌的演变

欧素英, 罗凯文, 田枫   

  1. 中山大学 河口海岸研究所 河口水利技术国家地方联合工程实验室, 广东 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-03 修回日期:2015-07-14 出版日期:2016-02-29 发布日期:2016-02-29
  • 通讯作者: 罗凯文。E-mail: 476582659@qq.com
  • 作者简介:欧素英(1974—), 女, 湖南省祁阳县人, 讲师, 从事河口海岸水文动力过程与沉积动力学方面研究。E-mail: ousuying@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    青年教师培育项目(13lgpy23)

The mophodynamic evolution of Zhelin tidal inlets

OU Suying, LUO Kaiwen, TIAN Feng   

  1. State-province Joint Engineering Laboratory of Estuarine Hydraulic Technology, Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Research, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2014-11-03 Revised:2015-07-14 Online:2016-02-29 Published:2016-02-29
  • Contact: LUO Kaiwen. E-mail: 476582659@qq.com
  • Supported by:
    The morphodynamic model of tidal inlets and response to the reclamation in South China (13lgpy23)

摘要: 潮汐汊道是连接内湾和外海、维持港口通航和水体交换的枢纽, 其演变特征是整个澙湖、海湾地貌体系研究的基础。选取典型多汊型潮汐汊道系统——柘林湾为研究对象, 以实测资料和历年海图、地形图为基础, 结合SELFE (semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element)模型, 研究多汊型潮汐汊道水动力结构、泥沙运动及自然和人类活动影响下的演变特征。结果显示, 20世纪70年代澄饶大联围之前, 共享柘林湾125km2纳潮水域的5个汊道同时维持稳定; 围垦工程后, 西侧2个汇潮口门封闭, 纳潮面积减少50%, 导致湾内动力减弱, 韩江来沙中断, 湾外浅滩冲刷, 泥沙向湾内输送, 30多年来三百门水道显著淤积, 小金门稳定, 大金门冲淤调整, 小门水道淤积不稳。围垦工程后小金门水道的纳潮面积变化甚少, 水动力及输沙仍为落潮占优, 汊道环流发育, 汊道断面冲淤微调, 维持稳定; 大金门汊道所控制的纳潮面积减小1/3, 口门涨、落潮流速不对称性减弱, 汊道冲淤调整; 小门水道纳潮面积剧减一半以上, 汊道延长弯曲, 大金门与小门水道的环流结构加剧了该汊道的淤积和不稳定。

关键词: 潮汐汊道, 柘林湾, 纳潮面积, 稳定性, 围垦, 汊道间环流

Abstract: Tidal inlet, which connects water inside and outside a bay, and maintains water exchange and channel’s navigation, is the core and foundation of an inlet system. Based on observational data, sea charts and topographic maps, the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes affected by natural and human activities in Zhelin Bay were studied with SELFE (semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element) model, and the evolutions of the tidal inlets were revealed. It was confirmed that tidal areas of Zhelin Bay with 125 km2 before the reclamation were independent and large for each inlet, whose stability was maintained. After the 1970s, the reclamation made the tidal water areas dropped to 50%, the hydrodynamic structure of tidal inlets changed accordingly, and the suspended sediments from the outside of the bay transported into Zhelin Lagoon and deposited into the Sanbaimen Channel. The tidal area of Xiaojinmen Inlet changed little, so the hydrodynamic and sediment transport of inlet was still ebb-tidal dominant. The circulation of Xiaojinmen Inlet was enhanced, which resulted in the adjustment of erosion and deposition. The tidal area induced by Dajinmen Inlet dropped 1/3 to 40 km2, which weakened the asymmetry of flow velocity. The circulation of Dajinmen Inlet promoted the deposition in the west and the erosion in the east of the inlet section. The tidal area of Xiaomen Inlet collapsed by more than half, which resulted in narrowed inlet width, extended length and shallower water depth; and the circulation between Dajinmen Inlet and Xiaomen Inlet intensified the deposition and instability of Xiaomen Inlet.

Key words: tidal inlet, Zhelin Bay, area of tidal water, stability, reclamation, circulation between inlets