热带海洋学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (2): 123-133.doi: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2012.02.017

• 海洋观测技术 • 上一篇    

国际海洋观测技术发展趋势与中国深海台站建设实践

李健 1,2 , 陈荣裕 1 ,王盛安 1 ,毛华斌 1 ,何云开 1,2 ,隋丹丹 1 ,谢强 1 , 3 , 施平 1 ,杨跃忠 1 ,王东晓 1   

  1. 1. 热带海洋国家重点实验室 ( 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 ), 广东 广州 510301|2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049; 3. 中国科学院三亚深海科学与工程研究所,海南 三亚 572000
  • 收稿日期:2010-11-10 修回日期:2011-01-04 出版日期:2012-06-05 发布日期:2012-06-05
  • 作者简介: 李健 (1981 — ), 男 , 山东省莱州市人 , 博士研究生 , 主要从事海气相互作用研究。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目 (2011CB403500); 南海海洋断面科学考察 (2008FY110100); 国家自然科学基金重点项目 (40830851); 中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目 (KZCX1-YW-12-01); 中国科学院近岸海洋观测研究网络项目 (KZCX2-YW-Y202); 国家自然科学 (40806003)

Development of international marine observation system and construction of deep-sea station in China

LI Jian 1,2 , CHEN Rong-yu1, WANG Sheng-an1, MAO Hua-bin1, HE Yun-kai1,2, SUI Dan-dan1, XIE Qiang1,3, SHI Ping1, YANG Yue-zhong1, WANG Dong-xiao1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography (South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Guangzhou, 510301, China; 2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; 3.Sanya Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China
  • Received:2010-11-10 Revised:2011-01-04 Online:2012-06-05 Published:2012-06-05

摘要: 20 世纪 80 年代以来 , 海洋观测呈现“多元化、立体化、实时化”的发展趋势 , 地区和国家的海洋观测系统在关键海域发挥着重要作用。随着技术的发展和理念的创新 , 区域海洋观测系统被广泛应用并得到不断完善。国际海洋观测台站如英国爱尔兰海区域、美国卡罗来纳州海区和加拿大维多利亚海底实验观测网的多元化观测系统 (VENUS) 都是值得借鉴的例子 , 他们把多元化、立体化的实时测量数据与海洋物理、生态和生物化学模式紧密结合起来 , 实现了海洋环境的可预报性。同时 , 美国、英德法等国和日本实施的一系列海底观测系统 , 使海洋观测更加完备化。在这种国际大背景下 , 我国积极推进的海洋观测研究网络工程中的第一个深海台站——西沙海洋观测研究站在 2008 年已经建设完成并投入运行 , 该台站实现了长时效的多参数海洋环境实时监控。西沙观测系统主要包括自动气象站、岛屿外缘坐底式海底和海底边界层观测子系统、生物捕获器、西沙上层海洋环境观测子系统和海洋光学监测子系统等。由于海洋环境结构复杂、工作环境恶劣以及资源缺乏等因素的影响 , 海洋观测一直是高风险的工作。最后希望通过比较国内外观测系统 , 中国海洋观测事业能够学习国外先进的思路和技术 , 自身取得更大进步。

关键词: 海洋观测系统, 海洋科学与技术, 西沙海洋观测研究站

Abstract: Since the 1980s, marine observation has become much more diversified, capable of delivering three-dimensional and real-time data. National and regional observing systems have been playing important roles in key regions of the oceans. Going with the development of technology and concept innovation, regional marine observation system has been widely used and gradually improved. International marine observation stations, such as the Irish Sea Coastal Observatory, the Carolinas Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System (RCOOS), and the Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) are great examples, which consist of three-dimensional and real-time data, combined with marine ecosystem, physical, biological and chemical models. Some other examples, such as the American “ North-East Pacific Time-series Undersea Networked Experiments ” (NEPTUNE), the “ European Seafloor Observatory Network ” (ESONET) and the Japanese “ Advanced Real-time Earth monitoring Network in the Area ” (ARENA) are deep-sea network systems, which make th e ocean observatory more comprehensive. Under these international backgrounds, the first deep-sea observation research network station in China-Xisha Marine Research Station was completed in 2008 and has started offering real-time data. The observation system mainly includes automatic weather station, mooring in the western boundary, biological traps, Xisha surface ocean observation system, and Xisha Ocean Optics observation system. Because of the complexity of marine structure, harsh working environment and resource shortages, marine observation could be a high risk task. With the knowledge of the domestic and international marine observation systems reviewed in this study, it is hoped that Chinese marine observation system could be developed and improved to achieve more rapid progress.

Key words: ocean observing system, ocean science and technology, Xisha Marine Research Station

中图分类号: 

  • P715