热带海洋学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (6): 62-70.doi: 10.11978/2016121

所属专题: 海上丝绸之路专题

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北印度洋苏门答腊和莫克兰俯冲带地震海啸综述

赵旭1(), 徐敏1(), 曾信1, 林间1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院边缘海与大洋地质重点实验室(南海海洋研究所), 广东 广州 510301
    2. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole MA 02543;
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-18 修回日期:2016-12-22 出版日期:2017-11-30 发布日期:2018-01-18
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵旭(1990#cod#x02014;), 男, 山东省聊城市人, 博士研究生, 主要从事海洋地球物理研究。E-mail: zhaoxu@scsio.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院率先行动#cod#x0201c;百人计划#cod#x0201d;人才项目(Y6YB011001);国家自然科学基金项目(41676044、91628301、U1606401);中国科学院项目(QYZDY-SSW-DQC005、Y4SL021001)

Review of tsunami caused by large earthquakes along the Sumatra and Makran subduction zones in the North Indian Ocean

Xu ZHAO1(), Min XU1(), Xin ZENG1, Jian LIN1,2   

  1. 1. CAS Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Guangzhou 510301, China
    2. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole MA 02543, USA
  • Received:2016-11-18 Revised:2016-12-22 Online:2017-11-30 Published:2018-01-18
  • About author:

    Author:QIU Chunhua.E-mail: qiuchh3@mail. sysu.edu.cn

  • Supported by:
    CAS Pioneer Hundred Talents Program (Y6YB011001);National Natural Science Foundation of China (41676044, 91628301, U1606401);Chinese Academy of Sciences Project (QYZDY-SSW-DQC005, Y4SL021001)

摘要:

印度洋海啸发生的频率远低于太平洋, 但2000年以来全球因地震引发的10个重大海啸有3个发生在印度洋区域。苏门答腊和莫克兰俯冲带是北印度洋中地震海啸活动较活跃的两个区域。在苏门答腊俯冲带北端, 2004年12月26日和2005年3月28日分别发生了里氏9.0级和8.6级大地震, 是1961年以来的第2及第4强震。前者引发了最大爬高50.9m的海啸, 造成了历史上最大的海啸灾难; 后者却只引发了最大4m的爬高。位置相近、震源机制相似的两次地震引发的海啸灾害完全不同的原因非常值得研究。近期研究表明莫克兰俯冲带的地震活动分为东西两段, 东段的地震活动明显多于西段。东段于1945年发生过大海啸, 莫克兰西段或是全段俯冲带未来是否会发生大地震与海啸值得深入探讨研究。

关键词: 北印度洋, 海啸, 地震, 莫克兰俯冲带, 苏门答腊俯冲带, 古海啸研究

Abstract:

The frequency of tsunamis occurred in the Indian Ocean is much lower than that of the Pacific Ocean; in the past fifteen years, however, three out of ten major tsunamis triggered by the earthquake occurred in the Indian Ocean region. The Makran and the Sumatra subduction zones are the two active regions in the North Indian Ocean for tsunamigenic earthquakes. In the northern Sumatra subduction zone, two earthquakes with Mw 9.0 and 8.6 occurred on December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005, respectively, and they were ranked as the second and fourth largest earthquakes in the past half century. The 2004 event generated a tsunami disaster with the largest wave runup of 50.9m, and resulted in the most devastating historical disaster, while the 2005 event only generated a maximum wave runup of 4m. What caused the completely different tsunami scenarios by the two earthquakes with similar location and focal mechanism is worthy of study. Recent studies showed that the seismic activities along the Makran subduction zone were divided into two neighboring sections: the seismic activity of the eastern section is significantly stronger than the western section, and the 1945 tsunami was located in this section. Whether the western section, or the whole Makran subduction zone has the potential to rupture together and thus generate major tsunamis requires further investigations.

Key words: North Indian Ocean, tsunami, earthquake, Makran subduction zone, Sumatra subduction zone, paleotsunami research

中图分类号: 

  • P738.4