热带海洋学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 52-64.doi: 10.11978/2021072

• 海洋物理学 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠江磨刀门河口水位分布演变特征及其对人类活动的响应*

马玉婷1,2,3,4(), 蔡华阳1,2,3,4, 杨昊1,2,3,4, 刘锋1,2,3,4, 陈欧1,2,3,4, 谢荣耀1,2,3,4, 欧素英1,2,3,4(), 杨清书1,2,3,4   

  1. 1. 中山大学, 海洋工程与技术学院, 河口海岸研究所, 广东 广州 510275
    2. 河口水利技术国家地方联合工程实验室, 广东 广州 510275
    3. 广东省海岸与岛礁工程技术研究中心, 广东 广州 510275
    4. 南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(珠海), 广东 珠海 519000
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-09 修回日期:2021-08-05 出版日期:2022-03-10 发布日期:2021-08-16
  • 通讯作者: 欧素英
  • 作者简介:马玉婷(1996—), 女, 四川省德阳市人, 硕士研究生, 主要从事河口海岸动力学研究。email: mayt8@mail2.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0402600);国家自然科学基金(41106015);国家自然科学基金(42076171);国家自然科学基金(51979296);广州市科技计划项目(202002030452);广东省水利科技创新项目(2016-20)

Evolution of water level profile dynamics in the Modaomen estuary of the Pearl River and its responses to human activities*

MA Yuting1,2,3,4(), CAI Huayang1,2,3,4, YANG Hao1,2,3,4, LIU Feng1,2,3,4, CHEN Ou1,2,3,4, XIE Rongyao1,2,3,4, OU Suying1,2,3,4(), YANG Qingshu1,2,3,4   

  1. 1. Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Research, School of Marine Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Estuarine Hydraulic Technology, Guangzhou 510275, China
    3. Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center of Coasts, Islands and Reefs, Guangzhou 510275, China
    4. Southern Laboratory of Ocean Science and Engineering (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519000, China
  • Received:2021-06-09 Revised:2021-08-05 Online:2022-03-10 Published:2021-08-16
  • Contact: OU Suying
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFC0402600);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41106015);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42076171);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51979296);Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China(202002030452);Water Resource Science and Technology Innovation Program of Guangdong Province(2016-20)

摘要:

河口区水位受径流、潮汐、地形、人类活动等多因素影响, 其空间分布结构及变化复杂。作为河口动力结构的重要参数, 水位分布演变特征及机制的研究对水资源高效开发利用和河口治理具有重要指导意义。文章基于珠江磨刀门河口沿程马口、甘竹、江门、竹银、灯笼山和三灶6个测站1965—2016年月均余水位数据及马口站的月均流量数据, 分析人类活动影响下水位空间分布的异变, 采用双变量线性回归模型定量辨识水位分布异变的主要影响因素, 并初步讨论人类活动、动力结构、地形变化之间的相互耦合关系。结果表明, 基于平均水面形态变化参数(即曲率)可较好地指示河床冲淤变化趋势, 河段平均曲率为正, 指示河床趋于淤积, 曲率为负, 河床趋于冲刷侵蚀; 围垦、大规模挖沙、河道疏浚等强人类活动前, 磨刀门河口上、下段坡降大于中段(江门—甘竹段), 即中段存在一个水位坡降变缓的区域, 枯季低流量时中段水位坡降出现由海向陆方向的倒坡降, 强人类活动后, 余水位空间分布结构发生异变, 中段坡降增大、低流量时的逆坡降消失; 强人类活动引起的河床地形变化是磨刀门河口沿程水位空间形态发生变化的主要原因, 使口门段(三灶—竹银)和河口上段(甘竹—马口)水位曲率分别减小0.41×10-4m·km-2和1.04×10-4m·km-2, 河口中段(竹银—甘竹)水位曲率增大0.21×10-4m·km-2, 沿程曲率由正(下凹)-负(上凸)-正转变为负-正-负, 沿程河床也随之由淤积-冲刷-淤积趋势转变冲刷-淤积-冲刷趋势。

关键词: 水位分布, 余水位曲率, 强人类活动, 冲淤趋势

Abstract:

The water level in the estuary area is affected by many factors, such as runoff, tide and topography, resulting in a complex pattern in spatial morphology. Understanding the evolution characteristics of water level distribution is essential for sustainable water resources managements in estuaries. In this study, we use the residual water level data from six gauge stations (Makou, Ganzhu, Jiangmen, Zhuyin, Denglongshan, and Sanzao stations) along the Modaomen estuary of the Pearl River during 1965 to 2016, together with the monthly averaged river discharge data from the Makou hydrological station during the corresponding period. With a bivariate variable linear regression model, we quantitatively identify the influence of human activities on water surface profile dynamics, and attempt to understand the coupling relationship among human activity, dynamic structure and morphological change. The results show that the bulk parameters displaying the shape of water level profile (i.e., curvature) can well indicate the trends of erosion and deposition of river bed, with the positive curvature indicating sedimentation tendency and the negative curvature indicating erosion tendency. In the central part of the Modaomen estuary, such as the Jiangmen-Ganzhu reach, there exists an area where the water level slope is considerably reduced, especially during the dry season when the water level slope even fluctuates negatively in the landward direction. The river-bed deepening caused by human activities such as land reclamation, sand excavation and river dredging are the main reason for the alteration in spatial dynamics of the water surface profiles in the Modaomen estuary. We show that the river-bed deepening causes the water level curvature of the seaward reach (Sanzao to Zhuyin reach) and the upper reach (Ganzhu to Makou reach) decreasing by 0.41×10-4 m·km-2 and 1.04×10-4 m·km-2, respectively, while the central reach of the estuary (Zhuyin to Ganzhu reach) increasing by 0.21×10-4 m·km-2; the water surface shape changes from concave (C>0) - convex (C<0) - concave to convex - concave - convex, and the trends of erosion and deposition of river bed are also adjusted accordingly.

Key words: water level profile dynamics, residual water level curvature, intensive human activities, tendencies of erosion and deposition

中图分类号: 

  • P731.23