热带海洋学报

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珠江黄茅海河口地貌形态变化及其动力响应

严静,韦惺   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南海海洋研究所,广东 广州 510301;

    2. 南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州),广东 广州 511458.

  • 收稿日期:2022-05-10 修回日期:2022-06-10 出版日期:2022-06-13 发布日期:2022-06-13
  • 通讯作者: 韦惺
  • 基金资助:

    国家基金重大项目(41890851),南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0303),热带海洋环境国家重点实验室自主研究项目(LTOZZ2202)

Geomorphological changes and dynamic responses of the Huangmaohai Estuary of the Pearl River Delta

YAN Jing1, WEI Xing1,2   

  1. 1. South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, China;

    2. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, 511458, China

  • Received:2022-05-10 Revised:2022-06-10 Online:2022-06-13 Published:2022-06-13
  • Contact: xing wei
  • Supported by:

     National Natural Science Foundation of China, China (41890851); The Key Special Projects for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), China (GML2019ZD0303); The Project of State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography (LTOZZ2202)

摘要: 黄茅海是位于珠江三角洲西南部的一个喇叭型溺谷河口湾。近几十年来在自然过程和人类活动共同作用下河口的地貌形态发生了巨大变化。本文基于1972~2016年地形图和卫星遥感影像,对河口岸线和水下地形的变化进行了量化分析,并构建了三维水动力模型对河口动力对地貌形态变化的响应进行了讨论。结果显示,土地围垦使得黄茅河口的口门和岸线急剧向海延伸,水域面积大面积减少。受此影响,河口的纳潮量减少了近19.61%,由1972年的11.13亿立方米减少为2016年的8.95亿立方米。河口的束窄和和形态的变化也使得河口出现水位抬升、径流动力增强,潮差减小,涨潮历时缩短,落潮历时延长等变化。未来,随着河口的淤积充填,河口的潮汐动力将受到进一步削弱。

关键词: 黄茅海河口, 地貌形态变化, 动力响应, 数值模拟

Abstract: The Huangmaohai Estuary (HE) is a horn-shaped estuary in the southwest of the Pearl River Delta. In recent decades, the geomorphology of the HE has undergone tremendous changes under the combined action of natural processes and human activities. Based on the historical charts and satellite remote sensing images from 1972 to 2016, this paper quantitatively analyzes the changes of the coastline and underwater topography, and constructs a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to discuss the dynamic response to the topographic changes. The results showed that land reclamation caused the mouth and coastline of the outlet to extend sharply to the sea, and the water area was greatly reduced. As a result, the tidal volume of the estuary decreased from 1.113 billion cubic meters in 1972 to 895 million cubic meters in 2016, a decrease of nearly 19.61%. At the same time, the narrowing of the estuary also causes changes in the hydrological dynamics, such as the rise of the water level, the enhancement of the runoff power, the reduction of the tidal range, the shortening of the high tide duration, and the extension of the ebb tide duration. In the future, with the silting and filling of the estuary, the tidal power of the estuary will be further weakened.

Key words: Huangmaohai Estuary, Morphological changes, Dynamic response, Numerical modeling