热带海洋学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 30-42.doi: 10.11978/2020008

• 海洋生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠江口典型海岛周边水域浮游植物分布特征及其影响因素*

苏芯莹1,2,3(), 钟瑜1, 李尧1,2, 谭美婷1,2,3, 黄亚东1,4, 刘珊1,3, 徐向荣1,3, 宋星宇1,3,4()   

  1. 1.中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室, 广东 广州 510301
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京100049
    3.南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室, 广东 广州 511458
    4.中国科学院南沙海洋生态环境实验站, 广东 广州 510301
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-15 修回日期:2020-04-01 出版日期:2020-09-10 发布日期:2020-04-01
  • 通讯作者: 宋星宇
  • 作者简介:苏芯莹(1994—), 女, 广西壮族自治区钦州市人, 硕士研究生, 从事海洋生态学研究。E-mail: suxinying17@mails.ucas.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中科院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA13020102);国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506302);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0502805);国家科技基础资源调查专项(2018FY100105);国家自然科学基金项目(41890853);南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0404)

Distribution characteristics and influencing factors of phytoplankton in waters around typical islands in the Pearl River Estuary*

SU Xinying1,2,3(), ZHONG Yu1, LI Yao1,2, TAN Meiting1,2,3, HUANG Yadong1,4, LIU Shan1,3, XU Xiangrong1,3, SONG Xingyu1,3,4()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 511458, China
    4. Nansha Marine Ecological and Environmental Research Station, Guangzhou 510301, China
  • Received:2020-01-15 Revised:2020-04-01 Online:2020-09-10 Published:2020-04-01
  • Contact: Xingyu SONG
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA13020102);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFC0506302);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFC0502805);National Science and Technology Fundamental Resources Investigation Program of China(2018FY100105);National Natural Science Foundation(41890853);Key Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou)(GML2019ZD0404)

摘要:

旅游业为海岛带来可观经济效益的同时, 人类活动也导致水体生态环境恶化, 如水体富营养化加剧、赤潮频发等。文章通过对珠江口东南部典型海岛——庙湾岛和外伶仃岛周边水域丰水期和枯水期现场环境数据与浮游植物分布特征的对比研究, 分析珠江径流等自然因素以及人类活动对河口天然海岛周边水体生态的潜在影响。枯水期外伶仃岛和庙湾岛周边水域海水分别镜检鉴定出76种和74种浮游植物, 两个海岛浮游植物平均细胞密度分别为2.62×104个·L-1和2.08×104个·L-1; 丰水期则分别鉴定出38种和47种浮游植物, 平均细胞密度分别为52.91×104个·L-1和170.57× 104个·L-1。在外伶仃岛和庙湾岛, 丰水期中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema coatatum)均为绝对优势种, 而枯水期两个岛的最主要优势种分别为窄隙角毛藻(Chaetoceros affinis)和新月筒柱藻(Cylindrotheca closterium), 物种多样性指数均明显高于丰水期。两个海岛微型浮游植物相对于其他两个粒级常占据优势地位, 但在丰水期, 小型浮游植物贡献明显上升, 其中外伶仃岛相对于枯水期由16.32%升至26.75%, 庙湾岛则由12.12%升高至24.78%。两个海岛在丰水期和枯水期均仅检出聚球藻(Synechococcus, Syn)和真核微微型藻类(eukaryotic, Euk)两大微微型浮游植物类群, 两者细胞密度分别为~107个·L-1及~108个·L-1量级。与环境因子的对比分析表明, 两个海岛浮游植物的区域分布与季节变化受多种因素影响, 其季节性差异主要受径流影响强度、影响范围以及相应的盐度、营养盐等环境因素的季节变化所调控。丰水期岛屿屏蔽效应对浮游植物丰度的区域分布特征有显著影响, 无论小型浮游植物还是微微型浮游植物均发现存在迎流面出现丰度高值分布的现象, 但对群落结构的分布影响不明显; 在枯水期, 水体环境很可能主要受人类活动与水体垂直混合扰动的综合影响, 总体上浮游植物分布的区域差异较小。

关键词: 珠江口, 外伶仃岛, 庙湾岛, 浮游植物, 岛屿屏蔽效应

Abstract:

Human activities around the islands are having growing impacts on aquatic ecosystems in the region, with increasing eutrophication and algal bloom events, despite the fact that the development of island tourism has brought considerable economic benefits to the locals. In this paper, we discuss the potential impacts of the Pearl River discharges and human activities on the aquatic ecological status around the natural estuarine islands, based on comparative study of environmental characteristics and phytoplankton distribution in the adjacent waters of representative islands (Miaowan Island, MI; and Wailingding Island, WI) in the Pear River Estuary during the wet season and dry season. In the dry season, 76 and 74 phytoplankton species were found in the waters around WI and MI, with average abundance values of 2.62 × 10 4 and 2.08 × 10 4 cells·L-1, respectively. In the wet season, the numbers of species were 38 and 47, and the average abundance values were 52.91 × 10 4 and 170.57 × 10 4 cells·L-1, respectively. In the wet season, Skeletonema coatatum was the predominated species around both islands, while in the dry season, the dominant species were Chaetoceros affinis in WI and Cylindrotheca closterium in MI. The phytoplankton species diversity indexes of both islands in the dry season were higher than those in the dry season. Nano-phytoplankton was always the most predominated group among three size-fractionated phytoplankton groups, although in the wet season, the contribution of micro-phytoplankton increased from 16.32 % to 26.75 % and from 12.12 % to 24.78 % in MI and WI, respectively. Among the pico-phytoplankton groups, Synechococcus (Syn, ~107 cells·L-1) and eukaryotic pico-phytoplankton (Euk, ~108 cells·L-1) were detected during our investigation. The comparative analysis results with environmental variables showed that the spatial distribution patterns and seasonal variation of phytoplankton were affected by several factors. The seasonal variation was regulated by the intensity and affecting area of Pearl River discharge, the relative salinity and nutrient input. In the wet season, the island shielding effect (ISE) showed significant influences on spatial distribution of phytoplankton abundance around each island, with higher biomass often found in the area facing the Pearl River flow direction; however, the phytoplankton community structure was not significantly affected by the ISE. In the dry season, the horizontal and vertical distributions of phytoplankton showed much smaller variation, and were probably impacted by human activities and intensified vertical mixing.

Key words: Pearl River Estuary, Wailingding Island, Miaowan Island, Phytoplankton, Island shielding effect

中图分类号: 

  • P735.121