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The relationship between tolerance to fresh water and growth traits for desalination culture in families of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
YANG Hai-peng, HU Chao-qun, ZHANG Lü-ping, REN Chun-hua, WANG Yan-hong
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2014, 33 (4): 69-76.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2014.04.009
Abstract578)      PDF (414KB)(85750)      

Previous investigations have shown that the rate of crustacean survival in salinity stress test was strongly relative to their future growth. In this research, a freshwater stress test followed with desalination culture experiment was carried out on 10 families of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in the same batch with different genetic backgrounds. The freshwater stress survival rate and desalination culture growth traits in different families were determined; at the same time the relationship between them was also analyzed. Our study indicated that there was a significant difference (p<0.01) among survival rates under freshwater stress of the 10 families. During the desalination culture, the survival rates of the 10 families were significantly different (p<0.01); there were differences (p<0.05) among body weight growth rate, the specific growth rate, body length growth rate, and feed coefficient of the 10 families performance. The family TF-1 had the highest survival rate under freshwater stress (63%) and desalination culture (51%), as well as body weight growth rate (17.54 mg·d-1), specific growth rate (6.68), and body length growth rate (0.53 mm·d-1); however, its feed coefficient (0.82) was lower than the other families. The survival rate under freshwater stress was positively correlated to desalination culture survival rate (r=0.855, p<0.01), body weight growth rate (r=0.636, p<0.05), specific growth rate (r=0.617, p<0.05), and body length growth rate (r=0.805, p<0.01), while it had a negative correlation with feed coefficient (r= -0.748, p<0.05). The research showed that survival rate of the shrimp postlarvae to freshwater stress test could represent the postlarvae’s quality on tolerance to fresh water, which will be an important reference index among the L. vannamei postlarvae’s desalination culture. Meanwhile, the family TF-1 would be used to breed high freshwater tolerance and fast-growing variety of L. vannamei.

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Cited: Baidu(2) CSCD(4)
Ensemble prediction of typhoon Muifa’s track and intensity
WANG Chen-xi
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2014, 33 (6): 48-60.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2014.06.007
Abstract632)      PDF (709KB)(84535)      
The GRAPES-TCM (global/regional assimilation and prediction system-tropical cyclone model) is used to make ensemble prediction experiments for typhoon Muifa (1109) in 2011. Three kinds of ensemble schemes are designed for the experiments. Every scheme has six ensemble members, which reflect the uncertainty of the model. The method of multiple physics (MP) is used to form the members of scheme 1. The method of stochastic total tendency perturbation (STTP) is used to form the members of scheme 3. Both the MP method and the STTP method are used to form the members of scheme 2. Thirty-six experiments are made and the integration time is 72 h.
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Cited: CSCD(3)
Selection and validation of the main acquisition parameters in marine seismic exploration:Case on land-slope deep water area in north of South China Sea
Luo Wen Zhao, Wei Chenglong, Wang Liming, Yang Suji
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2009, 28 (4): 93-101.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2009.04.093
Abstract1853)      PDF (4675KB)(83924)      
The authors have summarized a set of rules for choosing and verifying the main acquisition parameters in marine seismic exploration based on previous experiences of long-term practice. Firstly, an analysis is carried out for the selected area to establish a representative seismogeological model using various seismic and geologic information. Considering the current devices’ performances and options,they use a professional simulation software, Nucleus 6.2, to compute source parameters and to compare the response to various combinations of acquisition parameters, in order to choose a combination that is best adaptive to certain task. An actual exploration test is also carried out to verify the parameters’ combination chosen from the simulation test. Finally, the authors select the optimum Parameters’ combination and obtain quality data for production.
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Cited: CSCD(8)
Stable nitrogen isotope of zooplankton in the southern South China Sea
LIU Hua-xue, XU Jun, LI Chun-hou, CHEN Zuo-zhi, HUANG Hong-hui
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2015, 34 (2): 32-38.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2015.02.005
Abstract498)      PDF (1020KB)(79462)      
Stable isotope analysis has emerged as one of the primary means to analyze the structure of food webs. Size fractionated zooplankton biomass and stable isotopes in the southern South China Sea during spring and summer 2013 were investigated. The results showed that zooplankton biomass in spring was higher than those in summer at most sites (p<0.05), while the maximal value was found in the southwestern continental shelf (influenced by coastal upwelling) with increased mean value of zooplankton biomass during summer. Zooplankton was divided into three groups according to size. Macro- zooplankton contributed more to the total zooplankton biomass during summer, while meso- and micro-zooplankton contributed more during spring. Mean δ15N value in spring was higher than that in summer, and the δ15N value of macro-zooplankton was higher than those of meso- and micro-zooplankton at most sites. Zooplankton biomass was negatively related to mixed layer depth and seawater temperature at 75-m depth, and positively related to salinity at 75 m, indicating that zooplankton biomass was influenced by vertical mixing. The result of GAM (generalized additive model) indicated that the δ15N value of micro-zooplankton was affected by combined impacts by environmental and biological factors.
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Cited: Baidu(1)
Analysis on growth and characteristic of immune enzymes activity of Penaeus monodon family under environment-stress
YANG Qi-bin, WANG Zhuan-wei, ZHOU Fa-lin, WEN Wei-geng, SU Tian-feng, QIU Li-hua, HUANG Jian-hua
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2013, 32 (3): 78-85.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2013.03.012
Abstract656)      PDF (5206KB)(49172)      

The response of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Acid Phosphatase (ACP), and Phenoloxidase (PO) in Penaeus monodonfamilies to normal growth, low temperature stress and high ammonia stress was studied under laboratory condition. Growth in terms of specific growth rate (SGR) was significant difference among the selected families (p<0.05). The activities of ACP were significant difference among family 077, 017 and 661. The activities of SOD were significant difference between family 4612 and family 017. When the rearing temperature decreased from 27 ℃ to 20 ℃, the activities of ACP and SOD first increased and then decreased, the activities of PO reduced prolonged according to the low temperature stress, and the minor changes of control trial were not regular. Under the high ammonia stress, the activities of ACP increased prolonged, the activities of SOD increased in 0-8 h, then rapidly decreased in 8-48 h, the activities of PO reduced in 0-48 h, and the minor changes of control trial were not regular. The activities of immune enzymes of some families were significant differences, and three immune enzymes activities of family 4612 higher than that of other families under the high ammonia stress. A negative correlation was found between the specific growth rate and the activities of ACP, SOD and PO of ten families in three trials.

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A hybrid ensemble filter and 3D variational analysis scheme
WU Xin-rong,HAN Gui-jun,LI Dong,LI Wei
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2011, 30 (6): 24-30.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2011.06.024
Abstract1608)      PDF (464KB)(37794)      
A new hybrid data assimilation scheme based on ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) and three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) analysis is developed. In this assimilation scheme, the perturbation of ensemble from EAKF is applied to the background field by using a transformation matrix, thus the perturbation of the analysis field can be obtained by taking advantage of a sequential filter, which will then be optimized by being combined with observations under the framework of 3D-Var. The data assimilation experiment in a perfect case is carried out by using Lorenz-63 model. The results demonstrate that the hybrid data assimilation scheme performs better than EAKF.
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Cited: Baidu(6) CSCD(3)
Single ping filtering of multi-beam echo sounder data based on dynamic clustering
CHEN Xiao-long, PANG Yong-jie, LI Ye
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2013, 32 (5): 73-78.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2013.05.010
Abstract523)      PDF (540KB)(10383)      
For the data characteristics of interferometric multi-beam echo sounder (MBES), a single ping filtering method of MBES based on dynamic clustering is proposed. Considering the continuity of real terrain, the problem of outlier detection is transformed into clustering of real terrain data. Through continuous clustering of real terrain data, the outliers in data are eliminated. For the large data size in the process of clustering, dynamic clustering is adopted after partitioning clustering sets. Simultaneously, a trend adjusted factor is introduced for the feature domain selection, which is helpful for the decision of clustering direction. At last, the improved k-means method is utilized for output of clustering object. The results from processing sea test data of GeoSwath MBES show that the algorithm has good adaptability for different terrain characteristics, and is simple for implementation, which can be used for real-time filtering and post-processing of MBES data.
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Cited: Baidu(3)
Taxonomic note on the Lineate Nerite: Nerita balteata Reeve, 1855 (Gastropoda, Neritidae, Nerita)
CHEN Zhi-yun, TAN Ye-hui, LIAN Xi-ping
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2015, 34 (4): 74-76.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2015.04.010
Abstract849)      PDF (547KB)(9691)      

This paper dealt with inaccurate identification of some species in the family Neritidae. Specimens were arranged and classified systematically. The result showed that there are confusion and synonym: the name of the Lineate Nerite, Nerita lineata Gmelin, 1791, was a junior homonym of Nerita lineata müller, 1774 and a synonym of Nerita balteata Reeve, 1855. In addition, the Chinese name of this species was not unified in the published literatures. We clarified and revised the species name of the Lineate Nerite in the current literatures: Nerita balteata Reeve, 1855 according to the morphology and comparisons with similar species. All specimens were obtained from collections of the South China Sea Institute of Oceannology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
The relationship between nutrients and phytoplankton community structure in northern Beibu Gulf
WANG Fu-jing, LIN Yuan-shao, CAO Wen-qing, ZHANG Wen-jing, ZHENG Lian-ming, YANG Wei-di, WANG Yu-jie
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2015, 34 (6): 73-85.   DOI: 10.11978/2014134
Abstract617)      PDF (6991KB)(7800)      
Phytoplankton community and nutrient concentration in the northern Beibu Gulf in April and August 2011 were investigated. In this research, 312 phytoplankton taxa were identified, which belonged to four phyla and 78 genera, with Bacillariophyta being the main group. The dominant species were Thalassiosira subtilis, Leptocylindrus danicus, Bacillaria paradoxa, and Pseudonitzschia pungens in spring, and Thalassiosira sp. in summer. Phytoplankton community in northern Beibu Gulf could be divided into two natural groups in spring (spr1 & spr2) and three in summer (sum1, sum2 & sum3). N/P ratio was in a relatively high level in the study area, and most of the waters were phosphorus limitated which resulted from diatom blossom. Chaetoceros debilis was the dominant species of group spr1 and had significant correlation with nutrient in spring, except for ammonium. Bacillaria paradoxa was the dominant species of group sum3 and had significant correlation with phosphate in summer, but, it was uncorrelated with any environmental factors as the dominant species of group spr2 in spring. Phosphate was transported to northern Beibu Gulf through the Qiongzhou Strait corridor water, and silicate was input by land runoff.
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Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(4)
Simulations of the northern South China Sea using WAVEWATCH Ⅲ and SWAN
JIANG Li-fang,ZHANG Zhi-xu,QI Yi-quan,CHEN Rong-yu
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2011, 30 (5): 27-37.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2011.05.027
Abstract2233)      PDF (1139KB)(6295)      
We study the applicability of the National Centers Environmental Prediction/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ( NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis wind field using the buoy data including the wind speed, significant wave height and mean wave period from September 1987 to August 1988 in the northern South China Sea (SCS). To some extent, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind speed is consistent with the buoy data in the northern SCS. Then we assess the simulations using wave models WAVEWATCH Ⅲ (WW3) and Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) forced by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The results show that the simulations of the significant wave height (SWH) from the two models are almost the same during the monsoon and monsoon transition periods. The simulation of the mean wave period (MWP) from the WW3 is better than that from the SWAN during the monsoon period, while the results are just contrary during the monsoon transition period. The spatial characteristics from the WW3 simulation in the northern SCS are presented. The SWH affected by monsoon shows significant seasonal change in the northern SCS, while the MWP presents certain semi-annual variability.
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Cited: Baidu(11) CSCD(10)
Thermal structure of Nansha Trough Foreland Basin
MA Hui, XU He-hua, ZHAO Jun-feng, WAN Ju-ying, CHEN Ai-hua, LIU Tang-wei
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2012, 31 (3): 155-161.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2012.03.020
Abstract1333)      PDF (498KB)(5600)      
Thermal structure of continental lithosphere can directly affect physical and rheological properties of rock, thus limiting the evolution of lithosphere. Based on tectonic setting and influencing parameters of lithospheric thermal state in the Nansha Trough Foreland, we numerically simulated lithospheric thermal structure of 94N05 seismic profile in the basin using an one-dimensional steady-state heat-conduction equation. Simulation Results show that average heat flow is about 62 mW·m-2 in the basin, and mantle heat flow is between 37 and 44 mW·m-2, which is up to 60%—70% of the surface heat flow. The Nansha Trough Foreland Basin is in the tectonic thermal recovering phase. Affected by compressional tectonic surroundings since the Miocene, the surface heat flow is relatively low and mainly controlled by deep mantle, and temperature of Moho varies from 500 to 600℃. Thickness of thermal lithosphere is as thin as 60—70 km. This research also reveals that key factors of few regional earthquakes may be related to high temperature and thermal stabilization of the deep lithosphere in the Nansha Islands waters.
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Cited: Baidu(3) CSCD(2)
Analysis on codon usage bias of fatty acid delta-6 desaturase genes from different algae
ZHAO Wei,CHEN Bi-lian,WANG Ming-zi,HUANG Jian-zhong
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 126-134.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.126
Abstract1849)      PDF (332KB)(4405)      

Delta-6 desaturases are the key enzymes required for the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, which introduce double bond at the position of 18C in algae. In this study, the authors investigate codon usage bias and base composition variations in nine available complete desaturase gene sequences from Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. The results showed that △6 desaturase genes of T. pseudonana and P. tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) as well as Ostreococcus tauri (Chlorophyta) prefer to use the codons ended with G or C, with GC content as high as 61.61%; while △6 desaturase genes of three algae of Cyanophyta prefer to use the codons ended with A or U, with GC content 39.1%. Codon usage bias in alga △6 desaturase gene was very small, which was mainly determined by base compositions on the third codon position and the value of effective number of codons (ENC). It was implied that △6 desaturase genes were phylogenetically conservative. The results of comparing algae △6 desaturase genes to genomic codon usage of E.coli, yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana preference revealed that codon usage pattern among them was significantly different. In order to significantly increase the efficiency of algae △6 desaturase gene expression, partial codon in gene’s open reading frame needs to be reconstituted. The findings presented in this study offer guidance for expressing algae △6 desaturase gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

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Cited: Baidu(11) CSCD(5)
Salinity effects on growth and enzyme activity of juvenile Sepia pharaonis
LE Ke-xin, JIANG Xia-min, WANG Yuan, PENG Rui-bing, JIANG Mao-wang, HAN Qing-xi
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2015, 34 (6): 64-72.   DOI: 10.11978/2015038
Abstract616)      PDF (584KB)(4402)      
To investigate salinity effects on growth and enzyme activity of juvenile Sepia pharaonis, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted. These experiments revealed the effects of abrupt and gradual changes of salinity on survival rate, specific growth rate, weight gain rate, hepatosomatic index, and enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase). The results showed that abrupt salinity change had significant effects on larval survival rate and behavior after cultivation of 21 days (p<0.05). Optimum survival rates of juvenile cuttlefish were obtained when cultivated at salinity of 24‰ and 27‰ (75.56%±6.94%~77.78%±6.94%). Specific growth rate and weight gain rate were the highest at the salinity of 27‰. The hepatosomatic index increased with salinity increase, and achieved the highest value at the salinity of 30‰. Gradual change of salinity also had significant influence on survival rate, specific growth rate, weight gain rate, hepatosomatic index, and enzyme activity (p<0.05). Optimum survival rate (87.78%±1.92%) was obtained at the salinity of 24‰. Specific growth rate (6.88%•d-1±0.13%•d-1) and weight gain rate (180.96%±5.13%) were the highest at the salinity of 27‰, whilst the highest hepatosomatic index was observed at salinity of 30‰. SOD enzyme activity declined and then increased following the rising of salinity from 18‰ to 33‰, with the lowest value at salinity of 27‰. GOT, GPT and AKP enzyme increased and then decreased; GOT and GPT enzyme activity were the highest when the salinity was 24‰, whereas AKP enzyme reached the maximum value at salinity of 30‰. Therefore, the suitable and optimal salinity values were 21‰~30‰ and 24‰~27‰, respectively, under abrupt salinity change. Suitable and optimal salinity values were 18‰~33‰ and 24‰~27‰, respectively, under gradual salinity change. We concluded that juvenile cuttlefish can live under a wider range of salinity and that we can improve its survival rate with very gradual salinity change.
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Cited: CSCD(7)
An ecological study on fouling in the waters off the Bailong Peninsula in the Beibu Gulf
LI Heng-xiang,YAN Yan,HE Wei-hong,ZOU Xiao-li
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 108-113.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.108
Abstract2245)      PDF (288KB)(4380)      

An annual panel test on fouling organisms was carried out in the waters off the Bailong Peninsula in the Beibu Gulf from March 2006 to February 2007. The fouling organisms from the wharf and the cultured cages during the same time were also investigated. The biofouling in this area reflected distinct characteristics of subtropical harbors. A total of 82 fouling organism species were recorded, among which Balanus reticulates, Dexiosprira foraminosus, Spirorbis papillatus, Bugula neritina, Membranipora grandicella, Styela canopus, Electra tenella, Perna viridis and Dendostrea crenulifera were dominant species. Bioattachment occurred throughout the year, but the main period of settlement extended from May to October of 2006. The mean biomass of fouling organisms on the monthly, seasonal, and annual test panels were 200.54, 2 550.37 and        15 121.67g•m?2, respectively, in the waters off the Bailong Peninsula, which were lower than those in the waters of the Daya Bay and Zhanjiang Harbor, but higher than those in the waters of the Qinglan Harbor and off the Weizhou Island. The attachments of fouling were greatly different in each tidal zone of the Bailong Wharf, with the dominant species Littorina scabra and Nodilittorina radiate on high tidal zone, Ostrea glomerata, Saccostrea echinata, Saccostrea cucullata and Tetreclita squamosa on middle tidal zone, and algae on low tidal zone. Different suggestions on biocontrol are given in the present study for protecting the artificial structures, mariculture, and estuarine ecology in the Bailong waters.

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Cited: Baidu(12) CSCD(9)
Effects of different culture media on the growth and production of astaxanthin by Chlorella zofingiensis
PENG Juan,WANG Yan,XIANG Wen-zhou,CHEN Feng,
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 61-64.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.061
Abstract1750)      PDF (284KB)(4297)      

The biomass and astaxanthin yield of Chlorella zofingiensis cultivated in three different media including CZ-M1, Kuhl and KM1 were investigated. Results showed that Kuhl medium was best for growth as reflected by its highest values of specific growth rate, maximum cell dry weight concentration and cell growth yield on glucose comparing with the other media. However, its astaxanthin production was the lowest. KM1 exhibited the highest astaxanthin production both on a per dry cell weight and a per volume basis. Higher biomass (up to 8.99g•L-1 cell dry weight concentration) and astaxanthin levels (up to 20.1mg•L-1 and 2.24mg•g-1) in glucose-stressed Chlorella zofingiensis cells growing under low light in modified KM1 medium were obtained.

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Cited: CSCD(2)
Development of international marine observation system and construction of deep-sea station in China
LI Jian ,CHEN Rong-yu,WANG Sheng-an,MAO Hua-bin,HE Yun-kai,SUI Dan-dan,XIE Qiang,SHI Ping,YANG Yue-zhong,WANG Dong-xiao
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2012, 31 (2): 123-133.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2012.02.017
Abstract2065)      PDF (530KB)(4289)      
Since the 1980s, marine observation has become much more diversified, capable of delivering three-dimensional and real-time data. National and regional observing systems have been playing important roles in key regions of the oceans. Going with the development of technology and concept innovation, regional marine observation system has been widely used and gradually improved. International marine observation stations, such as the Irish Sea Coastal Observatory, the Carolinas Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System (RCOOS), and the Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) are great examples, which consist of three-dimensional and real-time data, combined with marine ecosystem, physical, biological and chemical models. Some other examples, such as the American “ North-East Pacific Time-series Undersea Networked Experiments ” (NEPTUNE), the “ European Seafloor Observatory Network ” (ESONET) and the Japanese “ Advanced Real-time Earth monitoring Network in the Area ” (ARENA) are deep-sea network systems, which make th e ocean observatory more comprehensive. Under these international backgrounds, the first deep-sea observation research network station in China-Xisha Marine Research Station was completed in 2008 and has started offering real-time data. The observation system mainly includes automatic weather station, mooring in the western boundary, biological traps, Xisha surface ocean observation system, and Xisha Ocean Optics observation system. Because of the complexity of marine structure, harsh working environment and resource shortages, marine observation could be a high risk task. With the knowledge of the domestic and international marine observation systems reviewed in this study, it is hoped that Chinese marine observation system could be developed and improved to achieve more rapid progress.
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Cited: Baidu(8) CSCD(8)
Research development and prospect on three-dimensional seismic structures of slow and ultraslow spreading ocean ridges
ZHAO Ming-hui,QIU Xue-lin,LI Jia-biao,CHEN Yong-shun,RUAN Ai-guo,AO We
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (6): 1-7.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.06.001
Abstract1843)      PDF (1019KB)(4121)      

Slow and ultraslow spreading ridges are the key areas for studying interplay among magmatism, tectonics, and hy-drothermal circulation comparing to the fast spreading ridges. Their complicated three-dimensional (3D) seismic structures are the basis of finding their tectonic dynamic mechanism. The research on the 3D seismic structures is reviewed in terms of slow spreading ridges in deep oceans, including its developing international research trend. The new experiments have detected a magma chamber or a melt body at a slow spreading ridge, same as at a fast spreading ridge. The 3D seismic survey for the first time was carried out on the southwest Indian Ocean Ridge from January to March in 2010. The key research aspects are then put forward based on these seismic experiment data. Its preliminary disposing result of the seismic data indicates that the high quality of the seismic data is the strong foundation of the 3D tomography. It is promising to make breakthrough in mechanism on ultraslow spreading ridges. The research will surely promote the Chinese status in the field of international ocean ridges.

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Cited: Baidu(28) CSCD(9)
Effects of NaHSO3 on the growth and contents of photosynthetic pigments in Dunaliella salina
CHENG Jian-feng,HU Fen-hong,SHEN Yun-gang
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 65-70.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.065
Abstract2241)      PDF (326KB)(4018)      

Bisulfite (NaHSO3) is a substance to accelerate plant cyclic photophosphorylation that can be used safely and environmentally friendly. In order to optimize the nutrients formula, decrease the production cost and improve the biomass and pigment accumulation of Dunaliella salina, the authors investigated the effects of different concentrations (0.00?0.40mM•L-1) of NaHSO3 on the biomass and photosynthetic pigment contents. The results showed that NaHSO3 could significantly improve the growth, contents of chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, Chl (a+b), carotenoid (Car) and ratio of Chl to Car. The effects firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of concentration. Accelerating effects under low concentrations (<0.10mM•L-1) were better than those under high concentrations (0.10?0.40mM•L-1), and the maximum accelerating effects were reaches at 0.07mM•L-1. NaHSO3 could increase Chl b content more than Chl a content, which caused the reduction of Chl a content relative to Chl b content; the effects firstly decreased and then increased with the increase of concentration, reducing effects under low concentrations (<0.1mM•L-1) were better than those under high concentrations (0.10?0.40mM•L-1), and the minimum reducing effect was achieved at 0.07mM•L-1. The correlations of biomass (Y) to contents of photosynthetic pigments and between contents of photosynthetic pigments were significant or markedly significant, with the highest correlation of Chl b (XChl.b) to biomass (Y=0.284XChl.b-0.883 (R2=0.994**)) and the next of Chl to biomass (Y=0.100XChl-2.022 (R2=0.993**)), which provided an indirect index to measure the growth of Dunaliella salina in every moment.

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Analysis of the polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer regions from 34 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
SU Ting,LUO Peng,HU Chao-qun,REN Chun-hua
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 55-60.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.055
Abstract1849)      PDF (525KB)(3987)      

Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), the polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer regions (ISR) from 34 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, including type strains and those isolated from environment and aquatic animals, were analyzed. The phylogenic relationships of these strains were also analyzed. The results showed that the ISRs could be separated into 4−10 different bands through PCR-DGGE. Thirty-four V. parahaemolyticus strains shared 15 polymorphic sites. Using MVSP, 34 strains were clustered into four groups, H, I, J, and K. Strains A18 and A25 had farthest genetic distance, with a value of 0.4. The present study suggested that ISR PCR-DGGE provided a new method for genotyping of V. parahaemolyticus.

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Cited: Baidu(2)
Tidal energy fluxes and dissipation in the South China Sea without considering tide-generated potential energy
TONG Jing-quan,LEI Fang-hui,MAO Qing-wen,QI Yi-quan
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.001
Abstract2184)      PDF (853KB)(3897)      

The tidal energy fluxes and dissipation of the principal barotropic tidal constituents M2, S2, K1 and O1 over the South China Sea (SCS) are examined in detail using the simulated tidal results of the Estuarine, Coastal and Ocean Model(ECOM). The results show that the M2, S2, K1 and O1 tidal energy fluxes across the Luzon Strait from the west Pacific are 38.93, 5.77, 29.73 and 28.97 GW into the SCS respectively, and the corresponding fluxes across the Karimata Strait into the Java Sea are 2.42, 0.36, 8.67 and 7.86 GW, respectively. There are also M2 tidal energy fluxes of 25.28 GW into the Taiwan Strait from the East China Sea and northwest of the Luzon Strait. The semi-diurnal tidal energy fluxes into the Beibu Gulf of and the Gulf of Thailand (6.52 GW in all) are much weaker than the diurnal tides (24.74GW). There is 12.28GW of diurnal tidal energy flux into the Sulu Sea from the SCS, while 1.92 GW of semi-diurnal tidal energy flux in a contrary direction. The net tidal energy fluxes and bottom boundary layer dissipation, which should be equal to each other in steady state, are not balanced in each area of the SCS. The most convenient management to this is to modulate the bottom friction coefficients, which are calculated to be 0.0023, 0.0024, 0.0023, and 0.0021 for the Taiwan Strait, the Beibu Gulf, the Gulf of Thailand and deep sea areas in the SCS, respectively.

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Cited: Baidu(3) CSCD(5)
Analysis of residual current during spring monsoon transition in the Beibu Gulf
LIU Tian-ran,WEI Hao,ZHAO Liang,YUAN Ye,LIU Zhi-yu
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 10-16.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.010
Abstract1859)      PDF (511KB)(3897)      

Current profile data of about 80 days were obtained by the submersible buoy measurement at two stations at the mouth of the Beibu Gulf during the spring monsoon transition in 2007. Using cross spectrum analysis, the structure of residual currents and the factors that influence the structure are analyzed, with the addition of QuikSCAT sea-surface wind data ob-tained from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center, and sea-surface temperature data provided by NOAA National Climatic Data Center. The results are as follows. The northward component of the wind had oscillations with a period about 10 days during spring monsoon transition in the Beibu Gulf. The wind could generate the oscillation of the density field, which could lead to the variation of density current. The residual currents at Sta-tion M4 were mainly controlled by wind. Water at Station M4 was transported into the Beibu Gulf. The residual currents at Station M5 were very different between surface and bottom. The whole water column was affected directly by wind, while the surface layer was also affected by the variation of density current controlled by wind. So wind affected residual currents in two ways at Station M5.

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Cited: Baidu(2) CSCD(4)
Isolation and genetic diversity analysis of microsatellites from nine species of familiar snappers
GUO Yu-song,WANG Zhong-duo,LIU Chu-wu,CHEN Zhi-ming,LIU Yun
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 82-86.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.082
Abstract1949)      PDF (364KB)(3836)      

Thirty-seven microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic library of L. russellii with PCR. Cross-species isolations with those markers were carried out for nine familiar species of snappers (L. erythropterus, L. argentimaculatus, L. stellatus, L. johnii, L. sebae, L. fulvus, L. fulviflamma, L. vitta and L. ophuysenii), and their genetic diversities were also evaluated. There were 10 microsatellite loci isolated successfully in nine species and 13 loci in partial species. The average expected heterozygosity, average observed heterozygosity and Hardy–Weinberg departure index under Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the nine species of snappers were 0.730?1.000, 0.716?0.915, (-0.002) -(-0.214), respectively. The results indicate that the genetic diversities of genus Lutjanus is in a relatively high level. In addition, the clear explain of prevalent absence of heterozygotes in all research species may request further research on fishes of genus Lutjanus.

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Cited: Baidu(8) CSCD(3)
Studies on distribution of fungal endophyte in mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum
DENG Zu-jun,CAO Li-xiang,VRIJMOED LILIAN L P,LU Yong-jun,ZHOU Shi-ning
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 77-81.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.077
Abstract2013)      PDF (353KB)(3767)      

Five hundred and twenty-nine isolates of fungal endophytes were isolated from the lamina, mid-rib, bark and the xylem of stem of Aegiceras corniculatum, among them 297 isolates in wet and 232 in dry season. The taxa of preponderant fungal endophyte communities differed in the four organs of Aegiceras corniculatum: in lamina are Penicillium and Aureobasidium, in mid-rib are Penicillium and Cladosporium, in bark are the sterile groups, and in xylem of stem are Aureobasidium and Cladosporium. These results indicated that there was some degree of organ specific in distribution of fungal endophytes. The preponderant taxa of endophyte assemblages in organs were different between wet and dry seasons. For example, in lamina, wet season were Penicillium and Aureobasidium, but dry season were sterile groups B and C. It showed that the density and the taxa of the endophyte communities in Aegiceras corniculatum were influenced by the environmental factors such as precipitation, temperature, humidity, and intensity of sunlight.

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Cited: Baidu(9) CSCD(5)
Evaluation of SMOS sea surface salinity data in the equatorial Pacific and its correction using neural network
ZENG Zhi, CHEN Xue-en, TANG Sheng-quan, WANG Wei-dong, GAO Rong-lu, YUAN Nan
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2015, 34 (6): 35-41.   DOI: 10.11978/2014140
Abstract624)      PDF (2954KB)(3767)      
In this paper, sea surface salinity data of the equatorial Pacific Ocean in 2011~2012, acquired by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, was processed for quality control and then analyzed for the first time in terms of dynamic process factors that may impact salinity retrieval. The neural network method was introduced to improve the quality-controlled salinity data of the same time period. It was found that precipitation and surface wave induced by precipitation can increase salinity error substantially in a negative trend. Sea surface roughness caused by wind also increased salinity errors. There was a weak positive correlation between wind speed and salinity error. Changes in sea surface temperature had little effect on salinity retrieval. Considering rainfall, wind speed and other major marine dynamic processes, the neural network method was used to revise sea surface salinity data of the equatorial Pacific in December 2011. The results showed that the RMS (root mean square) of salinity reduced from 0.383 7 to 0.244 1. It was found that not only was the salinity error caused by precipitation and other dynamic processes eliminated, but also the high salinity tongue in the equatorial Pacific was revealed, which the Level-3 data failed to.
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A brief
ZHOU Di,SUN Zhen,ZHAO Zhongxian,ZHANG Yunfan,LI Pengchun,LIAO Jie
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 155-156.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.155
Abstract1308)      PDF (98KB)(3762)      

A brief

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Isolation and screening of microsatellite markers from the Chinese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on FIASCO
QU Ni-ni ,GONG Shi-yuan ,HUANG Gui-ju ,TONG Jin-gou ,YU Da-hui
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 47-54.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.047
Abstract1804)      PDF (423KB)(3697)      

Isolation and screening of microsatellite markers from Pinctada fucata were performed using the method of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing Repeats (FIASCO). After restriction of genomic DNA with MseI, the digested fragments were ligated with adaptors and then hybridized with biotinylated (CA)15 probes. The tentative microsatellite DNA was isolated by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads from the hybridized mixture. After purification, the isolated microsatellite DNA was amplified using degenerated primer MseⅠ-N and then cloned into T-vector. After transforming, the microsatellite-enriched library was constructed. The second PCR screening was performed using the primer of (CA)15 probe and T vector’s primers, and 357 positive clones were obtained. Sequencing analysis showed that 297 clones (83.2%) contained microsatellite DNA, including 479 microsatellite domain. Among them, 370 microsatellites (77.3%) were perfect type, 95 (19.8%) imperfect type and 14 (2.9%) compound type. Forty nine pairs of primers were designed and 31 (63%) pairs were effective for PCR amplification. Nine loci showed polymorphism as tested by a population (n=32). PIC values for the nine loci ranged from 0.375 to 0.809 with an average of 0.536. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 9 with an average of 4.889. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.200 to 0.600 with an average of 0.415, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.454 to 0.844 with an average of 0.598. This study demonstrated that FIASCO is a useful technique of microsatellite isolation for Pinctada fucata.

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Cited: Baidu(27) CSCD(12)
Rock mass structure and ground stability of coral reefs in the southwestern Leizhou Peninsula
ZHAN Wen-huan,ZHAN Mei-zhen,SUN Zong-xun,YAO Yan-tao,ZHANG Zhi-qiang,
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 151-154.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.151
Abstract1939)      PDF (374KB)(3681)      

Research of coral reef is one of the important ways to track globe change. Its development also fits the demand of coral reef engineering in recent years. Corel reef is a special type of rock soil developing in tropical ocean environment. The coral reef area in the southwestern Leizhou Peninsula is special not only because of its component but also because of its development. In this area, the intensity of hydrodynamic force is different in different parts of coral reef, which is the main reason that makes the ecological environment and deposition to be zonal. It combines the coral reef physiognomy and engineering geology property; these factors form different rock mass structure and engineering geology belt. In this study, we analyze the geology, environment, rock mass structure and engineering geology of this area. We then estimate the ground suitability of coral reef area so that our study can provide guidance for resource exploitations.

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Cited: Baidu(10) CSCD(2)
Assessment of the Pearl River Estuary pollution by water comprehensive pollution index and biodiversity index
ZHANG Jing-ping,HUANG Xiao-ping,JIANG Zhi-Jian,HUANG Dao-jian,HUANG Liang-min
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (1): 69-76.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.01.069
Abstract2320)      PDF (1159KB)(3679)      

Two cruises were carried out to investigate the water quality and ecological status in the Pearl River Estuary in July 2006 and March 2007. Water comprehensive pollution index and biodiversity index (including phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos) were used to assess the pollution status. In addition, rationality of the assessment by using the biodiversity index was also discussed. The results indicated that the pollution degrees of the Pearl River Estuary were between moderate to severe. Water comprehensive pollution index showed that it was at a severely polluted status both in wet and dry seasons. Biodiversity index led to different results, which varied from lightly-moderate pollution to severe pollution. Among the three biodiversity indices, we considered that zooplankton diversity index was more congruent than the other two indices in pollution status assessment. However, the evaluation criteria should be verified and modified in future study. It was concluded that assessment for the environment quality and ecological status by using different biodiversity indices may come to a varied result, and a simple conclusion could not be hastily educed but should be associated with physicochemical factors.

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Cited: Baidu(47) CSCD(31)
Phylogenetic diversity analysis of bacteria in the deep-sea sediments from the Bashi Channel by 16S rDNA BLAST
SUN Hui-min,DAI Shi-kun,WANG Guang-hua,XIE Lian-wu,LI Xiang
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 41-46.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.041
Abstract2010)      PDF (444KB)(3650)      

Using modified DNA extraction and purification method, high-quailty environmental DNA was obtainedfrom deep-sea sediments of the Bashi Channel in the northern South China Sea. Diversity of eubacteria was studied by PCR, ARDRA and sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and compared with the published sequences in the GenBank. Based on the ARDRA profile generated, 118 clones from the 16S rDNA library were divided into 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the representative clones of the 23 OUT fell into nine groups: Actinobacteria (26%), Proteobacteria (22%), Planctomycetes (18%), Verrucomicrobia (4.5%), Sphingobacteria (4.5%), Nitrospira (4.5%), Chloroflexi (5%), Firmicutes (4.5%), and Acidobacteria (4.5%), repspectively. Among the 23 clones, there was no clone being identical to the known 16S rDNA sequences in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. In this clone library, 11 clones had less than 95% similarity to rDNA sequences retrieved from the DNA databases. The results suggested that bacterial population in the Bashi Channel of the northern South China Sea is very diverse in phylogeny and there are the massive unknown microorganism deserve further studying and exploration as valuable resources.

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Cited: Baidu(9) CSCD(9)
Effects of starvation on biochemical compositions and digestive enzyme activities of spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata juveniles
XUE Ming,KE Cai-huan,WEI Yong-jie
Journal of Tropical Oceanography    2010, 29 (3): 120-125.   DOI: 10.11978/j.issn.1009-5470.2010.03.120
Abstract1873)      PDF (363KB)(3649)      

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of starvation on biochemical compositions, energy values and activities of protease, lipase and amylase of the digestive system of Babylonia areolata juveniles during a period of 120 days. The results indicated that water and ash contents in the whole soft body increased gradually, while the contents of protein, lipid and glycogen, as well as the energy values, decreased greatly during starvation. The total lipase activity obtained from stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas was higher than that from the control when the snails were deprived for 10 days; it decreased markedly during starvation, and the total activities of amylase and protease reduced gradually with prolonged starvation period. The relative activity percentages were 70.12% and 63.66% for lipase and amylase when compared to the control after being starved for 70 days, whereas the responding value was 42.79% for protease. The activities of lipase and amylase showed a marked decrease from the 70th to the 90th day; they remained stable relatively thereafter. In conclusion, the lipid and glycogen contents were mobilized greatly during early growth period, while the protein was metabolized when the snails were starved longer than 70 days and served as the predominant energy source 90 days later. The total digestive enzyme activities of all three kinds maintained at lower level from the 90th to 120th day after a rapid decrease, and the water content could be used as an effective marker to estimate the nutrient status of the snails during starvation period.

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Cited: Baidu(10) CSCD(6)
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