热带海洋学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 121-131.doi: 10.11978/2021036

• 海洋生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

西沙群岛珊瑚礁海域浮游动物群落结构初步分析*

李开枝1,2(), 柯志新1,2, 王军星1,3, 谭烨辉1,2,4()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室, 南海海洋研究所, 广东 广州 510301
    2. 广东省应用海洋生物学重点实验室, 南海海洋研究所, 广东 广州 510301
    3. 惠州市海洋技术中心, 广东 惠州 516000
    4. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-25 修回日期:2021-05-17 出版日期:2022-03-10 发布日期:2021-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 谭烨辉
  • 作者简介:李开枝(1977—), 女, 河南省商城县人, 研究员, 从事浮游动物多样性和生态学研究。email: likaizhi@scsio.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41976112);国家自然科学基金(31971432)

Preliminary study on the community structure of zooplankton in coral reef waters of Xisha Islands*

LI Kaizhi1,2(), KE Zhixin1,2, WANG Junxing1,3, TAN Yehui1,2,4()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
    2. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Guangzhou 510301, China
    3. Marine Technology Center of Huizhou, Huizhou 516000, China
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-03-25 Revised:2021-05-17 Online:2022-03-10 Published:2021-05-24
  • Contact: TAN Yehui
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41976112);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31971432)

摘要:

为了解西沙群岛珊瑚礁海域浮游动物的群落特征, 于2015年5月末至7月初在西沙群岛8个岛礁(七连屿、永兴岛和东岛3个岛屿以及浪花礁、盘石屿、玉琢礁、华光礁和北礁5个环礁)进行了浮游动物采样, 分析了浮游动物的多样性、丰度和群落结构特征, 并比较了5个环礁潟湖内和向海礁坡区浮游动物群落组成的差异。调查海域共鉴定浮游动物180种(包括浮游幼虫13个类群), 其中桡足类最多, 达83种, 其次是水母类(38种)、浮游软体类(14种)、毛颚类(11种)和浮游被囊类(7种); 浮游动物平均丰度为256.4±117.8个·m-3, 桡足类占总丰度的51.08%, 其次是浮游幼虫(16.30%)、浮游被囊类(13.22%)和毛颚类(7.70%)。浮游动物种数、多样性和均匀度指数、丰度在岛屿和环礁之间以及环礁的潟湖区和向海礁坡区均存在差异; 浮游动物多样性和丰度在东岛、玉琢礁和华光礁较高, 而在七连屿和北礁较低; 5个环礁向海礁坡区的浮游动物多样性和丰度皆高于潟湖区的。多元统计分析结果表明调查岛礁的浮游动物可划分两个聚群(相似水平85%); 岛屿近岸及环礁的潟湖群落(Ⅰ)和岛屿远岸及环礁的向海礁坡群落(Ⅱ); 两个聚群浮游动物组成差异较显著(r=0.832, p<0.001); 前者的种数、多样性指数、总丰度和主要浮游动物类群如桡足类、毛颚类和浮游幼虫的丰度显著低于后者。环礁潟湖区和向海礁坡区的空间异质性和生态环境差异可能是导致浮游动物群落结构呈现不同特征的主要因素。

关键词: 浮游动物, 物种多样性, 空间分布格局, 珊瑚礁, 南海

Abstract:

Zooplankton were sampled in coral reef waters from three islands (Qilianyu, Yongxing and Dong islands) and five atolls (Langhua, Panshi, Yuzhuo, Huaguang, and North atolls) around the Xisha Islands from May to July, 2015 in order to understand the community structure of zooplanktonin the region. The aims of this study are to analyze the species diversity, abundance distribution and community structure of zooplankton, and to compare the differences in zooplankton community between the lagoon and seaward reef-slope waters among the five atolls. A total of 180 species of zooplankton including 13 groups of planktonic larvae were identified, among which the greatest species number was the copepods with 80 species, followed by the hydromedusae, pelagic mollusca, chaetognaths and pelagic tunicates. The average abundance of zooplankton was 256.4 ± 117.8 ind·m-3, among which copepods accounted for 51.08% of the total abundance, followed by planktonic larvae (16.30%), pelagic tunicates (13.22%) and chaetognaths (7.70%). Differences in zooplankton species, diversity, evenness index, and abundance between islands and atolls, as well as in the lagoon and seaward reef-slope of five atolls, were observed. The diversity and abundance of zooplankton were relatively high in Dong Island, Yuzhuo Atoll and Huaguang Atoll, but low in Qilianyu and North atolls. They were higher in the seaward reef-slope regions than in the lagoons of the five atolls. Two major assembled groups were distinguished into the atoll lagoon-island and nearshore group, and the seaward reef slope-island and offshore group at the similarity of 85%. A significant difference in the two zooplankton assemblages was observed (r=0.832, p<0.001). The former group was characterized by low values of species richness, diversity index, total abundance, and abundances of main groups such as copepods, chaetognaths and planktonic larvae compared with the latter group. The heterogeneity and ecological environment differences between the atoll lagoon and seaward reef-slope waters may be the main factors determining the zooplankton community structure around the Xisha Islands.

Key words: zooplankton, diversity, spatial pattern, coral reefs, South China Sea

中图分类号: 

  • P735.124