热带海洋学报

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粤港澳大湾区近海中小型浮游动物分布特征及影响因素

宋星宇1, 2, 3*, 林雅君1, 4, 张良奎1, 4, 向晨晖1, 2, 黄亚东3, 5, 郑传阳3, 5   

  1. 1. 热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室(中国科学院南海海洋研究所), 广州 510301;

    2. 南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州), 广州 511458;

    3. 中国科学院南沙海洋生态环境实验站, 广州 510301;

    4. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;

    5. 中国科学院南海生态环境工程创新研究院, 广州 510301

  • 收稿日期:2022-06-17 修回日期:2022-07-19 出版日期:2022-07-26 发布日期:2022-07-26
  • 通讯作者: 宋星宇
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(41890853); 南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0404); 国家科技基础资源调查专项(2018FY10010005); 中国科学院南海生态环境工程创新研究院自主部署项目(NO.ISEE2018ZD02); 国家重点基础研究发展计划(2015CB452904); 国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506302、2016YFC0502805)

Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Meso- and Micro-zooplankton Communities in Coastal Waters of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area

SONG Xingyu1, 2, 3*, LIN Yajun1, 4, ZHANG Liangkui1, 4, XIANG Chenhui1, 2, HUANG Yadong3, 5, ZHENG Chuanyang3, 5   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China;

    2. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China;

    3. Nansha Marine Ecological and Environmental Research Station, Guangzhou 510301, China;

    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;

    5. Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, CAS, Guangzhou 510301, China

  • Received:2022-06-17 Revised:2022-07-19 Online:2022-07-26 Published:2022-07-26
  • Contact: Xing-Yu SONG
  • Supported by:

    National Nature Science Foundation (41890853); Key Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou)(GML2019ZD0404); National Science and  Technology Fundamental Resources Investigation Program of China (2018FY10010005); Self-deployed project of Southern Marin Institute of Eco-Environmental Engineering Innovation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NO.ISEE2018ZD02); Key Project of Chinese National Programs for Fundamental Research and Development (2015CB452904); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC0506302、2016YFC0502805)

摘要: 为阐明粤港澳大湾区近海水文动力和人为活动引起的环境变化对浮游动物群落结构的影响, 于2019年7月(夏季)和2020年12月(冬季)在粤港澳大湾区近海珠江口、大亚湾、黄茅海三个断面进行浮游动物采样, 比较分析中小型浮游动物的群落特征, 并探讨引起其季节和区域差异的影响因素。调查海域共鉴定中小型浮游动物211种(包括浮游幼虫), 其中桡足类占总种数的42.18%, 浮游动物的多样性、丰度呈现明显的季节和区域差异。浮游动物种数和平均丰度均为夏季高于冬季, 远岸海域物种多样性高于近岸。浮游动物丰度高值区在两个季节均位于珠江口咸淡水交汇区域; 夏季河口水域的平均丰度高于大亚湾水域的, 冬季丰度分布无明显差异。聚类分析结果显示: 调查海域夏季整体分为河口、海湾、远岸3个类群, 珠江口水域受径流影响较大, 与大亚湾之间群落结构差异明显; 而冬季河口与海湾近岸水域群落结构差异不明显。强额孔雀哲水蚤(Parvocalanus crassirostris)、短角长腹剑水蚤(Oithona brevicornis)在夏季和冬季均为优势种, 厦门矮隆哲水蚤(Bestiolina amoyensis)、中华异水蚤(Acartiella sinensis)、简长腹剑水蚤(Oithona simplex)等为夏季优势种, 小拟哲水蚤(Paracalanus parvus)等为冬季优势种。Pearson相关性分析与冗余分析表明大湾区近海浮游动物丰度与温度、盐度、叶绿素a浓度及营养物质的关系存在种间、季节和区域差异, 表明湾区复杂的水体环境条件对中小型浮游动物群落结构存在潜在影响。

关键词: 粤港澳大湾区, 珠江口, 大亚湾, 黄茅海, 浮游动物, 群落结构

Abstract: In order to clarify the influence of hydrological dynamics and environmental changes caused by human activities on the zooplankton community structure in the coastal waters of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Bay Area, zooplankton samples were collected in 3 transections (the Pearl River Estuary, Daya Bay and Huangmao Sea) in July 2019 (summer) and December 2020 (winter). The characteristics of meso- and micro-zooplankton community were analyzed, and the influencing factors of their seasonal and regional differences were discussed. A total of 211 zooplankton species (including larvae) were identified in the study area, among which copepods accounted for 42.18%. The diversity and abundance of zooplankton showed obvious seasonal and regional differences. The number of species and average abundance of zooplankton were higher in summer than in winter, and the species diversity in offshore waters was higher than that in offshore waters. The high values of zooplankton abundance were located in the interface of saline- and plume- waters of the Pearl River Estuary in both seasons. In summer, the average abundance in estuarine waters was obviously higher than that in Daya Bay, while in winter there was no such difference in the nearshore waters. The results of cluster analysis showed that the zooplankton community could be divided into three groups, i.e. the estuarine group, the bay group and the far-shore group in summer. The estuarine waters was greatly affected by runoff, and the community structure was significantly different from that of Daya Bay. However, there was no significant difference in community structure between the estuarine and the bay in winter. Parvocalanus crassirostris and Oithona brevicornis were dominant species in both seasons, Bestiolina amoyensis, Acartiella sinensis and Oithona simplex were also dominant in the wet season, while Paracalanus parvus was also dominant in the dry season. Pearson correlation analysis and RDA analysis results showed that there were interspecific and seasonal differences in the correlations between the abundance of different species and temperature, salinity, phytoplankton biomass and nutrients, suggesting that the complex water environment in the Greater Bay Area had a potential influence on the differentiation of meso- and micro-zooplankton community structure.

Key words: Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, Pearl River Estuary, Daya Bay, Huangmao Sea, meso- and micro-zooplankton, community structure